Etymology
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Words related to incontinent

in- (1)
Origin and meaning of in-
word-forming element meaning "not, opposite of, without" (also im-, il-, ir- by assimilation of -n- with following consonant, a tendency which began in later Latin), from Latin in- "not," cognate with Greek an-, Old English un-, all from PIE root *ne- "not."

In Old French and Middle English often en-, but most of these forms have not survived in Modern English, and the few that do (enemy, for instance) no longer are felt as negative. The rule of thumb in English has been to use in- with obviously Latin elements, un- with native or nativized ones.
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continent (adj.)
Origin and meaning of continent

late 14c., "self-restraining, temperate, abstemious," especially "abstaining from or moderate in sexual intercourse," from Old French continent and directly from Latin continentem (nominative continens) "holding together, continuous," present participle of continere "to hold back, check," also "hold together, enclose," from assimilated form of com "with, together" (see con-) + tenere "to hold" (from PIE root *ten- "to stretch"). In reference to bladder control, 1899. Related: Continently.

incontinence (n.)
late 14c., "inability to restrain sexual desire, sexual immorality," later "inability to keep to a religious rule" (early 15c.), from Old French incontinence "lack of abstinence, unchastity" (12c.) or directly from Latin incontinentia "greediness; incontinence, inability to contain," abstract noun from incontinens "incontinent, immoderate, intemperate" (see incontinent). Meaning "inability to restrain bodily functions" is from 1754.
incontinency (n.)
early 15c., "unchastity;" see incontinent + abstract noun suffix -cy.
incontinently (adv.)
early 15c., "immediately, without delay, at once," from incontinent + -ly (2). From 1550s as "unchastely;" in reference to bodily discharges from 1847.