word-forming element meaning "not, opposite of, without" (also im-, il-, ir- by assimilation of -n- with following consonant, a tendency which began in later Latin), from Latin in- "not," cognate with Greek an-, Old English un-, all from PIE root *ne- "not."
In Old French and Middle English often en-, but most of these forms have not survived in Modern English, and the few that do (enemy, for instance) no longer are felt as negative. The rule of thumb in English has been to use in- with obviously Latin elements, un- with native or nativized ones.
early 15c., "passable" (of an area); "penetrable" (of a building)," from Late Latin permeabilis "that can be passed through, passable," from Latin permeare "to pass through, go over," from per "through" (from PIE root *per- (1) "forward," hence "through") + meare "to pass," from PIE root *mei- (1) "to change, go, move." Meaning "capable of being passed through without rupture or displacement" is from 1773, especially of substances permitting the passage of fluids. Related: Permeably.
<a href="https://www.etymonline.com/word/impermeable">Etymology of impermeable by etymonline</a>
Harper, D. (n.d.). Etymology of impermeable. Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved $(datetime), from https://www.etymonline.com/word/impermeable