Etymology
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Words related to idiom

idio- 

word-forming element meaning "one's own, personal, distinct," from Greek idios "own, personal, private, one's own" (see idiom).

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idiomatic (adj.)

1712, "peculiar to a certain language," from Latin idiomaticus, from Greek idiomatikos "peculiar, characteristic;" from idios "one's own" (see idiom) + matos "thinking, animated" (from PIE root *men- (1) "to think"). Meaning "marked by use of idioms" is from 1839.

idiopathy (n.)

"primary disease," 1690s, Modern Latin, from medical Greek idiopatheia, from idios "one's own" (see idiom) + -patheia, abstract noun formation from pathos "suffering, disease, feeling" (from PIE root *kwent(h)- "to suffer"). Related: idiopathic.

idiosyncrasy (n.)

c. 1600, from French idiosyncrasie, from Latinized form of Greek idiosynkrasia "a peculiar temperament," from idios "one's own" (see idiom) + synkrasis "temperament, mixture of personal characteristics," from syn "together" (see syn-) + krasis "mixture," from PIE root *kere- "to mix, confuse; cook" (see rare (adj.2)).

Originally in English a medical term meaning "physical constitution of an individual;" mental sense "peculiar mixture" of the elements in one person that makes up his character and personality first attested 1660s. In modern use, loosely, one's whims, habits, fads, or tastes. Sometimes confused in spelling with words in -cracy, but it is from krasis not kratos.

idiot (n.)
Origin and meaning of idiot

early 14c., "person so mentally deficient as to be incapable of ordinary reasoning;" also in Middle English "simple man, uneducated person, layman" (late 14c.), from Old French idiote "uneducated or ignorant person" (12c.), from Latin idiota "ordinary person, layman; outsider," in Late Latin "uneducated or ignorant person," from Greek idiotes "layman, person lacking professional skill" (opposed to writer, soldier, skilled workman), literally "private person" (as opposed to one taking part in public affairs), used patronizingly for "ignorant person," from idios "one's own" (see idiom).

In plural, the Greek word could mean "one's own countrymen." In old English law, one who has been without reasoning or understanding from birth, as distinguished from a lunatic, who became that way. Idiot box "television set" is from 1959; idiot light "dashboard warning signal" is attested from 1961. Idiot savant attested by 1870.

idioticon (n.)

"a dictionary of a dialect," 1842, via German, from Latinized form of idiotikon, neuter of Greek idiotikos, from idioma (see idiom).

khedive (n.)

title of the Turkish viceroy of Egypt, 1867, from French khédive, from Turkish khidiv, from Persian khidiw "prince," derivative of khuda "master, prince," from Old Persian khvadata- "lord," from compound *khvat-data-, literally "created from oneself," from khvat- (from PIE *swe-tos "from oneself," ablative of root *s(w)e-; see idiom) + data- "created." His wife was a khediva.

mansuetude (n.)

"tameness, gentleness, mildness," late 14c., from Latin mansuetudo "tameness, mildness, gentleness," noun of state from past-participle stem of mansuescere "to tame," literally "to accustom to the hand," from manus "hand" (from PIE root *man- (2) "hand") + suescere "to accustom, habituate," from PIE *swdh-sko-, from *swedh- (see sodality), extended form of root *s(w)e- (see idiom).

peculiar (adj.)

mid-15c., "belonging exclusively to one person," also "special, particular," from Old French peculiaire and directly from Latin peculiaris "of one's own (property)," from peculium "private property," literally "property in cattle" (in ancient times the most important form of property), from pecu "cattle, flock," related to pecus "cattle" (see pecuniary).

The meaning "unusual, uncommon, odd" is by c. 1600 (earlier "distinguished, special, particular, select," 1580s; for sense development, compare idiom). The euphemistic phrase peculiar institution for U.S. slavery is by 1838. Related: Peculiarly.

resolve (v.)

late 14c., resolven, "melt, dissolve, reduce to liquid; separate into component parts; alter, alter in form or nature by application of physical process," " intransitive sense from c. 1400; from Old French resolver or directly from Latin resolvere "to loosen, loose, unyoke, undo; explain; relax; set free; make void, dispel."

This is from re-, here perhaps intensive or meaning "back" (see re-), + solvere "to loosen, untie, release, explain," from PIE *se-lu-, from reflexive pronoun *s(w)e- (see idiom) + root *leu- "to loosen, divide, cut apart."

From the notion of "separate into components" comes the sense in optics (1785; see resolution). From the notion of "reduce by mental analysis into its basic forms" (late 14c.) comes the meaning "determine, decide upon" after analysis (1520s), hence "pass a resolution" (1580s); "decide, settle" a dispute, etc. (1610s). For sense evolution, compare resolute (adj.).

In Middle English also "vaporize a solid, condense a vapor into a liquid, etc.;" a mid-15c. document has Sche was resoluyd in-to terys where a later writer might have she dissolved in tears. Related: Resolved; resolving.

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