Etymology
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go (v.)

Old English gan "to advance, walk; depart, go away; happen, take place; conquer; observe, practice, exercise," from West Germanic *gaian (source also of Old Saxon, Old Frisian gan, Middle Dutch gaen, Dutch gaan, Old High German gan, German gehen), from PIE root *ghē- "to release, let go; be released" (source also of Sanskrit jihite "goes away," Greek kikhano "I reach, meet with"), but there does not seem to be general agreement on a list of cognates.

A defective verb throughout its recorded history; the Old English past tense was eode, a word of uncertain origin but evidently once a different verb (perhaps connected to Gothic iddja); it was replaced 1400s by went, past tense of wenden "to direct one's way" (see wend). In northern England and Scotland, however, eode tended to be replaced by gaed, a construction based on go. In modern English, only be and go take their past tenses from entirely different verbs.

The word in its various forms and combinations takes up 45 columns of close print in the OED. Meaning "cease to exist" is from c. 1200; that of "to appear" (with reference to dress, appearance, etc.) is from late 14c.; that of "to be sold" is from early 15c. Meaning "to be known" (with by) is from 1590s; that of "pass into another condition or state" is from 1580s. From c. 1600 as "to wager," hence also "to stand treat," and to go (someone) better in wagering (1864). Meaning "say" emerged 1960s in teen slang. Colloquial meaning "urinate or defecate" attested by 1926, euphemistic (compare Old English gong "a privy," literally "a going").

To go back on "prove faithless to" is from 1859; to go under in the figurative sense "to fail" is from 1849. To go places "be successful" is by 1934.

go (n.)

1727, "action of going," from use of go (v.) to start a race, etc. Meaning "an incident, an occurrence, affair, piece of business" is from 1796. Meaning "power of going, dash, vigor" is from 1825, colloquial, originally of horses. The sense of "an attempt, a try or turn at doing something" (as in give it a go, have a go at) is from 1825 (earlier it meant "a delivery of the ball in skittles," 1773). Meaning "something that goes, a success" is from 1876. Phrase on the go "in constant motion" is from 1843. Phrase from the word go "from the beginning" is by 1834. The go "what is in fashion" is from 1793. No go "of no use" is from 1825.

go (adj.)

"in order," 1951, originally in aerospace jargon, from go (v.).

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Definitions of go
1
go (v.)
change location; move, travel, or proceed, also metaphorically;
How fast does your new car go?
Synonyms: travel / move / locomote
go (v.)
follow a procedure or take a course;
Messages must go through diplomatic channels
go about the world in a certain manner
We should go farther in this matter
Synonyms: proceed / move
go (v.)
move away from a place into another direction;
Synonyms: go away / depart
go (v.)
enter or assume a certain state or condition;
Get going!
Synonyms: become / get
go (v.)
be awarded; be allotted;
The first prize goes to Mary
go (v.)
have a particular form;
as the saying goes...
Synonyms: run
go (v.)
stretch out over a distance, space, time, or scope; run or extend between two points or beyond a certain point;
His knowledge doesn't go very far
Synonyms: run / pass / lead / extend
go (v.)
follow a certain course;
how did your interview go?
Synonyms: proceed
go (v.)
be abolished or discarded;
These luxuries all had to go under the Khmer Rouge
These ugly billboards have to go!
go (v.)
be or continue to be in a certain condition;
go (v.)
make a certain noise or sound;
Synonyms: sound
go (v.)
perform as expected when applied;
The washing machine won't go unless it's plugged in
Synonyms: function / work / operate / run
go (v.)
to be spent or finished;
Synonyms: run low / run short
go (v.)
progress by being changed;
The speech has to go through several more drafts
Synonyms: move / run
go (v.)
continue to live and avoid dying;
Synonyms: survive / last / live / live on / endure / hold up / hold out
go (v.)
pass, fare, or elapse; of a certain state of affairs or action;
How is it going?
go (v.)
pass from physical life and lose all bodily attributes and functions necessary to sustain life;
Synonyms: die / decease / perish / exit / pass away / expire / pass / kick the bucket / cash in one's chips / buy the farm / conk / give-up the ghost / drop dead / pop off / choke / croak / snuff it
go (v.)
be in the right place or situation;
Where do these books go?
Synonyms: belong
go (v.)
be ranked or compare;
go (v.)
begin or set in motion;
Ready, set, go!
Synonyms: start / get going
go (v.)
have a turn; make one's move in a game;
Can I go now?
Synonyms: move
go (v.)
be contained in;
How many times does 18 go into 54?
go (v.)
be sounded, played, or expressed;
How does this song go again?
go (v.)
blend or harmonize;
This sofa won't go with the chairs
Synonyms: blend / blend in
go (v.)
lead, extend, or afford access;
This door goes to the basement
Synonyms: lead
go (v.)
be the right size or shape; fit correctly or as desired;
Synonyms: fit
go (v.)
go through in search of something; search through someone's belongings in an unauthorized way;
Synonyms: rifle
go (v.)
be spent;
go (v.)
give support (to) or make a choice (of) one out of a group or number;
Synonyms: plump
go (v.)
stop operating or functioning;
Synonyms: fail / go bad / give way / die / give out / conk out / break / break down
2
go (n.)
a time period for working (after which you will be relieved by someone else);
it's my go
Synonyms: spell / tour / turn
go (n.)
street names for methylenedioxymethamphetamine;
Synonyms: Adam / ecstasy / xtc / disco biscuit / cristal / x / hug drug
go (n.)
a usually brief attempt;
Synonyms: crack / fling / pass / whirl / offer
go (n.)
a board game for two players who place counters on a grid; the object is to surround and so capture the opponent's counters;
Synonyms: go game
3
go (adj.)
functioning correctly and ready for action;
all systems are go
From wordnet.princeton.edu