Etymology
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get (v.)

c. 1200, from Old Norse geta (past tense gatum, past participle getenn) "to obtain, reach; to be able to; to beget; to learn; to be pleased with," a word of very broad meaning, often used almost as an auxilliary verb, also frequently in phrases (such as geta rett "to guess right"). This is from Proto-Germanic *getan (source also of Old Swedish gissa "to guess," literally "to try to get"), from PIE root *ghend- "to seize, take."

Old English, as well as Dutch and Frisian, had the verb almost exclusively in compounds (such as begietan, "to beget;" forgietan "to forget"). Vestiges of an Old English cognate *gietan remain obliquely in modern past participle gotten and original past tense gat, also Biblical begat.

In compound phrases with have and had it is grammatically redundant, but often usefully indicates possession, obligation, or necessity, or gives emphasis. The word and phrases built on it take up 29 columns in the OED 2nd edition; Century Dictionary lists seven distinct senses for to get up.

"I GOT on Horseback within ten Minutes after I received your Letter. When I GOT to Canterbury I GOT a Chaise for Town. But I GOT wet through before I GOT to Canterbury, and I HAVE GOT such a Cold as I shall not be able to GET rid of in a Hurry. I GOT to the Treasury about Noon, but first of all I GOT shaved and drest. I soon GOT into the Secret of GETTING a Memorial before the Board, but I could not GET an Answer then, however I GOT Intelligence from the Messenger that I should most likely GET one the next Morning. As soon as I GOT back to my Inn, I GOT my Supper, and GOT to Bed, it was not long before I GOT to Sleep. When I GOT up in the Morning, I GOT my Breakfast, and then GOT myself drest, that I might GET out in Time to GET an Answer to my Memorial. As soon as I GOT it, I GOT into the Chaise, and GOT to Canterbury by three: and about Tea Time, I GOT Home. I HAVE GOT No thing particular for you, and so Adieu." [Philip Withers, "Aristarchus, or the Principles of Composition," London, 1789, illustrating the widespread use of the verb in Modern English]

As a command to "go, be off" by 1864, American English. Meaning "to seize mentally, grasp" is from 1892. Get wind of "become acquainted with" is from 1840, from earlier to get wind "to get out, become known" (1722). To get drunk is from 1660s; to get religion is from 1772; to get better "recover health" is from 1776. To get ready "prepare oneself" is from 1890; to get going "begin, start doing something" is by 1869 in American English; get busy "go into action, begin operation" is from 1904. Get lost as a command to go away is by 1947. To get ahead "make progress" is from 1807. To get to (someone) "vex, fret, obsess" is by 1961, American English (get alone as "to puzzle, trouble, annoy" is by 1867, American English). To get out of hand originally (1765) meant "to advance beyond the need for guidance;" sense of "to break free, run wild" is from 1892, from horsemanship. To get on (someone's) nerves is attested by 1970.

get (n.)

early 14c., "offspring, child," from get (v.) or beget. Meaning "what is got, booty" is from late 14c.

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Definitions of get
1
get (v.)
come into the possession of something concrete or abstract;
She got a lot of paintings from her uncle
Synonyms: acquire
get (v.)
enter or assume a certain state or condition;
It must be getting more serious
Synonyms: become / go
get (v.)
cause to move; cause to be in a certain position or condition;
He got his squad on the ball
He got a girl into trouble
Synonyms: let / have
get (v.)
receive a specified treatment (abstract);
I got nothing but trouble for my good intentions
Synonyms: receive / find / obtain / incur
get (v.)
reach a destination; arrive by movement or progress;
She didn't get to Chicago until after midnight
Synonyms: arrive / come
get (v.)
go or come after and bring or take back;
Synonyms: bring / convey / fetch
get (v.)
go through (mental or physical states or experiences);
get nauseous
get an idea
Synonyms: experience / receive / have
get (v.)
take vengeance on or get even;
This time I got him
We'll get them!
Synonyms: pay back / pay off / fix
get (v.)
achieve a point or goal;
The Brazilian team got 4 goals
Synonyms: have / make
get (v.)
succeed in catching or seizing, especially after a chase;
We finally got the suspect
Synonyms: catch / capture
get (v.)
come to have or undergo a change of (physical features and attributes);
I got funny spots all over my body
Synonyms: grow / develop / produce / acquire
get (v.)
be stricken by an illness, fall victim to an illness;
He got AIDS
Synonyms: contract / take
get (v.)
communicate with a place or person; establish communication with, as if by telephone;
The operator couldn't get Kobe because of the earthquake
Bill called this number and he got Mary
get (v.)
give certain properties to something;
get someone mad
Synonyms: make
get (v.)
move into a desired direction of discourse;
Synonyms: drive / aim
get (v.)
grasp with the mind or develop an understanding of;
did you get it?
I just don't get him
She didn't get the joke
Synonyms: catch
get (v.)
attract and fix;
Synonyms: catch / arrest
get (v.)
reach with a blow or hit in a particular spot;
The blow got him in the back
Synonyms: catch
get (v.)
reach by calculation;
What do you get when you add up these numbers?
get (v.)
acquire as a result of some effort or action;
Where did she get these news?
You cannot get water out of a stone
get (v.)
purchase;
What did you get at the toy store?
get (v.)
perceive by hearing;
She didn't get his name when they met the first time
Synonyms: catch
get (v.)
suffer from the receipt of;
Synonyms: catch
get (v.)
receive as a retribution or punishment;
He got 5 years in prison
Synonyms: receive
get (v.)
leave immediately; used usually in the imperative form;
Synonyms: scram / buzz off / fuck off / bugger off
get (v.)
reach and board;
She got the bus just as it was leaving
get (v.)
irritate;
Her childish behavior really get to me
His lying really gets me
Synonyms: get under one's skin
get (v.)
evoke an emotional response;
Brahms's `Requiem' gets me every time
get (v.)
apprehend and reproduce accurately;
She got the mood just right in her photographs
Synonyms: catch
get (v.)
earn or achieve a base by being walked by the pitcher;
Synonyms: draw
get (v.)
overcome or destroy;
the cat got the goldfish
The ice storm got my hibiscus
get (v.)
be a mystery or bewildering to;
get (v.)
take the first step or steps in carrying out an action;
Let's get down to work now
Synonyms: get down / begin / start out / start / set about / set out / commence
get (v.)
undergo (as of injuries and illnesses);
She got a bruise on her leg
He got his arm broken in the scuffle
Synonyms: suffer / sustain / have
get (v.)
make (offspring) by reproduction;
Synonyms: beget / engender / father / mother / sire / generate / bring forth
2
get (n.)
a return on a shot that seemed impossible to reach and would normally have resulted in a point for the opponent;
From wordnet.princeton.edu