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gallery (n.)

mid-15c., "covered walk or passageway, narrow and partly open passageway along a wall," from Old French galerie "a long portico" (14c.), from Medieval Latin galeria, of unknown origin. Perhaps an alteration of galilea "church porch," which is probably from Latin Galilaea "Galilee," the northernmost region of Palestine (see Galilee); church porches sometimes were so called, perhaps from being at the far end of the church:

Super altare Beatæ Mariæ in occidentali porte ejusdem ecclesiæ quæ Galilæ a vocatur. [c.1186 charter in "Durham Cathedral"]

Sense of "building to house art" first recorded 1590s. In reference to theaters, of the section with the highest, cheapest seats; hence "people who occupy a (theater) gallery" (contrasted with "gentlemen of the pit") first by Lovelace, 1640s, hence to play to the gallery (1867).

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Definitions of gallery from WordNet

gallery (n.)
spectators at a golf or tennis match;
gallery (n.)
a porch along the outside of a building (sometimes partly enclosed);
Synonyms: veranda / verandah
gallery (n.)
a room or series of rooms where works of art are exhibited;
Synonyms: art gallery / picture gallery
gallery (n.)
a long usually narrow room used for some specific purpose;
shooting gallery
gallery (n.)
a covered corridor (especially one extending along the wall of a building and supported with arches or columns);
gallery (n.)
narrow recessed balcony area along an upper floor on the interior of a building; usually marked by a colonnade;
gallery (n.)
a horizontal (or nearly horizontal) passageway in a mine;
Synonyms: drift / heading
From wordnet.princeton.edu