by 1856 in theology, with reference to prophecy; 1915 as "avant garde, ultra-modern," from futurist (see futurism) + -ic. Meaning "pertaining to the future, predicted to be in the future" is from 1921, from future (n.) + -istic.
1909 as the name of a movement in arts and literature, from Italian futurismo, coined 1909 by Italian poet Filippo Tommaso Marinetti (1876-1944); see future + -ism. Futurist is from 1911 in the arts movement sense; attested from 1842 in a Protestant theological sense ("one who holds that nearly the whole of the Book of Revelations refers principally to events yet to come" - Century Dictionary). As "one who has (positive) feelings about the future" it is attested from 1846 but marked in dictionaries as "rare."
Middle English -ik, -ick, word-forming element making adjectives, "having to do with, having the nature of, being, made of, caused by, similar to," from French -ique and directly from Latin -icus or from cognate Greek -ikos "in the manner of; pertaining to." From PIE adjective suffix *-(i)ko, which also yielded Slavic -isku, adjectival suffix indicating origin, the source of the -sky (Russian -skii) in many surnames. In chemistry, indicating a higher valence than names in -ous (first in benzoic, 1791).
In Middle English and after often spelled -ick, -ike, -ique. Variant forms in -ick (critick, ethick) were common in early Modern English and survived in English dictionaries into early 19c. This spelling was supported by Johnson but opposed by Webster, who prevailed.