Words related to forest

foreign (adj.)

c. 1300, ferren, foran, foreyne, in reference to places, "outside the boundaries of a country;" of persons, "born in another country," from Old French forain "strange, foreign; outer, external, outdoor; remote, out-of-the-way" (12c.), from Medieval Latin foraneus "on the outside, exterior," from Latin foris (adv.) "outside," literally "out of doors," related to foris "a door" (from PIE *dhwor-ans-, suffixed form of root *dhwer- "door, doorway").

English spelling altered 17c., perhaps by influence of reign, sovereign. Sense of "alien to one's nature, not connected with, extraneous" attested late 14c. Meaning "pertaining to another country" (as in foreign policy) is from 1610s. Replaced native fremd. Related: Foreignness. Old English had ælþeodig, ælþeodisc "foreign," a compound of æl- "foreign" + þeod "people."

park (n.)

mid-13c., "tract of land enclosed as a preserve for beasts of the chase," from Old French parc "enclosed wood or heath land used as a game preserve" (12c.), probably ultimately from West Germanic *parruk "enclosed tract of land" (source also of Old English pearruc, root of paddock (n.2), Old High German pfarrih "fencing about, enclosure," German pferch "fold for sheep," Dutch park).

Internal evidence suggests the West Germanic word is pre-4c. and originally meant the fencing, not the place enclosed. It is found also in Medieval Latin as parricus "enclosure, park" (8c.), which likely is the direct source of the Old French word, as well as Italian parco, Spanish parque, etc. Some claim the Medieval Latin word as the source of the West Germanic, but the reverse seems more likely. Some later senses in English represent later borrowings from French. OED discounts the notion of a Celtic origin: Welsh parc, Gaelic pairc are from English.

Meaning "enclosed lot in or near a town, set aside and maintained for public recreation" is attested from 1660s, originally in reference to London; the sense evolution is via royal parks in the original, hunting sense being overrun by the growth of London and being opened to the public. It was applied to sporting fields in American English from 1867.

New York's Park Avenue as an adjective meaning "luxurious and fashionable" (1956) was preceded in the same sense by London's Park Lane (1880). As a surname, Parker "keeper of a park" is attested in English from mid-12c. As a vehicle transmission gear, park (n.) is attested from 1949.

wood (n.)
Old English wudu, earlier widu "tree, trees collectively, forest, grove; the substance of which trees are made," from Proto-Germanic *widu- (source also of Old Norse viðr, Danish and Swedish ved "tree, wood," Old High German witu "wood"), from PIE *widhu- "tree, wood" (source also of Welsh gwydd "trees," Gaelic fiodh- "wood, timber," Old Irish fid "tree, wood"). Out of the woods "safe" is from 1792.
afforest (v.)

"convert to forest" (especially for hunting grounds), c. 1500, from Anglo-Latin afforestare, from assimilated form of Latin ad "to" (see ad-) + Medieval Latin forestis (see forest (n.)). Related: Afforested; afforestation.

deforest (v.)

1842 (implied in deforested), "cut down and clear away the forests of," from de- + forest. Related: Deforesting. Disforest in the sense "to clear of trees" is from 1660s. Disafforest is attested in this sense from 1842; originally it meant "reduce from the legal status of a forest" (mid-15c., from Old French).


Proto-Indo-European root meaning "door, doorway." The base form is frequently in dual or plural, leading to speculation that houses of the original Indo-Europeans had doors with two swinging halves.

It forms all or part of: afforest; deforest; door; faubourg; foreclose; foreign; forensic; forest; forfeit; forum; hors d'oeuvre; thyroid.

It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit duárah "door, gate;" Old Persian duvara- "door;" Lithuanian dùrys (plural); Greek thyra "door;" Latin foris "out-of-doors, outside;" Gaulish doro "mouth;" Old Prussian dwaris "gate;" Russian dver' "a door;" Old English dor, German Tür "door," Gothic dauro "gate."

forester (n.)
late 13c. (late 12c. as a surname), "officer in charge of a forest," from Old French forestier "forest ranger, forest-dweller" (12c., also, as an adjective, "wild, rough, coarse, unsociable"), from forest (see forest (n.)).
forestry (n.)
1690s, "privilege of a royal forest," from forest (n.) + -ry or else from Old French foresterie, from forest (see forest (n.)). Meaning "science of managing forests" is from 1859.
reforest (v.)

also re-forest, "to restore to a wooded condition, replant with forest trees," 1831, from re- "back, again" + verb use of forest (n.). Related: Reforested; reforesting. Compare reafforest.