mid-15c., from Late Latin folio "leaf or sheet of paper," from Latin folio, ablative of folium "leaf" (source also of Italian foglia, French feuille, Spanish hoja), from PIE *bhol-yo- "leaf" (source also of Greek phyllon "leaf," Gaelic bile "leaflet, blossom"), suffixed form of root *bhel- (3) "to thrive, bloom." Ablative of location, because this was used in page references. Meaning "volume of the largest size" first attested 1620s.
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Definitions of foliation from WordNet
(botany) the process of forming leaves;
(geology) the arrangement of leaflike layers in a rock;