Etymology
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extension (n.)

c. 1400, "swelling, bulging," from Latin extensionem/extentionem (nominative extensio/extentio) "a stretching out, extension," noun of action from past-participle stem of extendere (see extend). In a concrete sense, "extended portion of something" (a railroad, etc.), from 1852. Telephone sense is from 1906.

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Definitions of extension

extension (n.)
a mutually agreed delay in the date set for the completion of a job or payment of a debt;
they applied for an extension of the loan
extension (n.)
act of expanding in scope; making more widely available;
extension of the program to all in need
extension (n.)
the spreading of something (a belief or practice) into new regions;
Synonyms: propagation
extension (n.)
an educational opportunity provided by colleges and universities to people who are not enrolled as regular students;
Synonyms: extension service / university extension
extension (n.)
act of stretching or straightening out a flexed limb;
extension (n.)
a string of characters beginning with a period and followed by one or more letters; the optional second part of a PC computer filename;
most BASIC files use the filename extension .BAS
most applications provide extensions for the files they create
Synonyms: filename extension / file name extension
extension (n.)
the most direct or specific meaning of a word or expression; the class of objects that an expression refers to;
the extension of `satellite of Mars' is the set containing only Demos and Phobos
Synonyms: reference / denotation
extension (n.)
the ability to raise the working leg high in the air;
good extension comes from a combination of training and native ability
the dancer was praised for her uncanny extension
extension (n.)
amount or degree or range to which something extends;
the wire has an extension of 50 feet
Synonyms: lengthiness / prolongation
extension (n.)
an additional telephone set that is connected to the same telephone line;
Synonyms: telephone extension / extension phone
extension (n.)
an addition to the length of something;
Synonyms: elongation
extension (n.)
an addition that extends a main building;
Synonyms: annex / annexe / wing
From wordnet.princeton.edu