Etymology
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extend (v.)

early 14c., "to value, assess," from Anglo-French estendre (late 13c.), Old French estendre "stretch out, extend, increase," transitive and intransitive (Modern French étendre), from Latin extendere "stretch out, spread out; increase, enlarge, prolong, continue," from ex "out" (see ex-) + tendere "to stretch," from PIE root *ten- "to stretch."

Original sense in English is obsolete. From late 14c. as "lengthen or extend in time," also "straighten" (an arm, wing. etc.). Meaning "make longer and/or broader in space" is from early 15c., as is intransitive sense of "cover an area, have a certain extent in space;" sense of "expand, grow distended" is from 1753. Related: Extended; extending.

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Definitions of extend

extend (v.)
extend in scope or range or area;
The law was extended to all citizens
Synonyms: widen / broaden
extend (v.)
stretch out over a distance, space, time, or scope; run or extend between two points or beyond a certain point;
The facts extend beyond a consideration of her personal assets
My memory extends back to my fourth year of life
Synonyms: run / go / pass / lead
extend (v.)
span an interval of distance, space or time;
The war extended over five years
My land extends over the hills on the horizon
Synonyms: cover / continue
extend (v.)
make available; provide;
extend a loan
Synonyms: offer
extend (v.)
thrust or extend out;
extend a hand
Synonyms: exsert / stretch out / put out / hold out / stretch forth
extend (v.)
reach outward in space;
The awning extends several feet over the sidewalk
Synonyms: poke out / reach out
extend (v.)
offer verbally;
extend my greetings
Synonyms: offer
extend (v.)
extend one's limbs or muscles, or the entire body;
Synonyms: stretch
extend (v.)
expand the influence of;
The King extended his rule to the Eastern part of the continent
Synonyms: expand
extend (v.)
lengthen in time; cause to be or last longer;
She extended her visit by another day
Synonyms: prolong / protract / draw out
extend (v.)
extend or stretch out to a greater or the full length;
extend the TV antenna
Synonyms: unfold / stretch / stretch out
extend (v.)
cause to move at full gallop;
Synonyms: gallop
extend (v.)
open or straighten out; unbend;
Can we extend the legs of this dining table?
extend (v.)
use to the utmost; exert vigorously or to full capacity;
He really extended himself when he climbed Kilimanjaro
Synonyms: strain
extend (v.)
prolong the time allowed for payment of;
extend the loan
extend (v.)
continue or extend;
The disease extended into the remote mountain provinces
Synonyms: carry
extend (v.)
increase in quantity or bulk by adding a cheaper substance;
extend the casserole with a little rice
Synonyms: stretch
From wordnet.princeton.edu