Etymology
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equation (n.)

late 14c., a term in astrology (from French équation, 14c.); general sense of "action of making equal" is from 1650s, from Latin aequationem (nominative aequatio) "an equal distribution, a sharing in common," noun of state from past participle stem of aequare (see equal (adj.)). Mathematical sense is from 1560s, on notion of equalizing the expressions; Chemistry sense is from 1807.

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Definitions of equation

equation (n.)
a mathematical statement that two expressions are equal;
equation (n.)
a state of being essentially equal or equivalent; equally balanced;
Synonyms: equality / equivalence / par
equation (n.)
the act of regarding as equal;
Synonyms: equating
From wordnet.princeton.edu