Etymology
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Words related to equal

adequate (adj.)
1610s, "equal to what is needed or desired, sufficient," from Latin adaequatus "equalized," past participle of adaequare "to make equal to, to level with," from ad "to" (see ad-) + aequare "make level," from aequus "equal, even" (see equal (adj.)). The sense is of being "equal to what is required." It shares duty with enough, depending on the subject. With a slightly disparaging tinge, "mediocre, just good enough," by 1900. Related: Adequateness.
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coequal (adj.)

also co-equal, "equal with another person or thing," late 14c.; see co- + equal (adj.). As a noun, "one who or that which is equal to another," 1570s. Related: Coequally, coequality.

equality (n.)

late 14c., "evenness, smoothness, uniformity;" c. 1400 in reference to amount or number; from Old French equalité "equality, parity" (Modern French égalité, which form dates from 17c.), from Latin aequalitatem (nominative aequalitas) "equality, similarity, likeness" (also sometimes with reference to civil rights), from aequalis "uniform, identical, equal" (see equal (adj.)). Early 15c. as "state of being equal." Of privileges, rights, etc., in English from 1520s.

equalize (v.)
1580s, "make equal, cause to be equal in amount or degree," from equal (adj.) + -ize. Sports score sense attested by 1925. Related: Equalized; equalizing.
equally (adv.)
late 14c., "in equal shares," from equal (adj.) + -ly (2). Meaning "impartially" is from 1520s; that of "in an equal manner, uniformly" is from 1660s.
equanimity (n.)
c. 1600, "fairness, impartiality," from French équanimité, from Latin aequanimitatem (nominative aequanimitas) "evenness of mind, calmness; good-will, kindness," from aequanimis "mild, kind," literally "even-minded," from aequus "even, level" (see equal (adj.)) + animus "mind, spirit" (see animus). Meaning "evenness of temper" in English is from 1610s.
equate (v.)
early 15c., "to make similar or the same; to balance or harmonize; distribute (ingredients) uniformly; reduce to evenness or smoothness; to set (a fracture)," from Latin aequatus "level, levelled, even, side-by-side," past participle of aequare "make even or uniform, make equal," from aequus "level, even, equal" (see equal (adj.)). Earliest use in English was of astrological calculation, then "to make equal;" meaning "to regard as equal" is early 19c. Related: Equated; equating.
equation (n.)
late 14c., a term in astrology (from French équation, 14c.); general sense of "action of making equal" is from 1650s, from Latin aequationem (nominative aequatio) "an equal distribution, a sharing in common," noun of state from past participle stem of aequare (see equal (adj.)). Mathematical sense is from 1560s, on notion of equalizing the expressions; Chemistry sense is from 1807.
equi- 
before vowels equ-, word-forming element meaning "equal, having equal," from Latin aequi-, combining form of aequus "equal, even" (see equal (adj.)).
equidistant (adj.)
1560s, from French équidistant (14c.), from Late Latin aequidistantem (nominative aequidistans), from aequi- (see equal (adj.)) + distans (see distant). In reference to a type of map projection, from 1866. Related: Equidistance.