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equal (adj.)

late 14c., "identical in amount, extent, or portion;" early 15c., "even or smooth of surface," from Latin aequalis "uniform, identical, equal," from aequus "level, even, flat; as tall as, on a level with; friendly, kind, just, fair, equitable, impartial; proportionate; calm, tranquil," which is of unknown origin. Parallel formation egal (from Old French egal) was in use late 14c.-17c. Equal rights is from 1752; by 1854 in American English in reference to men and women. Equal opportunity (adj.) in terms of hiring, etc. is recorded by 1925.

equal (v.)

1580s, "compare, liken, consider as equal" (obsolete), also "match, rival, become equal to," from equal (adj.). Related: Equaled; equaling.

equal (n.)

1570s, from equal (adj.).

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Definitions of equal from WordNet
1
equal (v.)
be identical or equivalent to;
One dollar equals 1,000 rubles these days!
Synonyms: be
equal (v.)
be equal to in quality or ability;
Synonyms: touch / rival / match
equal (v.)
make equal, uniform, corresponding, or matching;
Synonyms: match / equalize / equalise / equate
2
equal (adj.)
having the same quantity, value, or measure as another;
all men are equal before the law
on equal terms
equal (adj.)
having the requisite qualities or resources to meet a task;
he was equal to the task
Synonyms: adequate
3
equal (n.)
a person who is of equal standing with another in a group;
Synonyms: peer / match / compeer
From wordnet.princeton.edu