Etymology
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emerald (n.)

"bright green precious stone," c. 1300, emeraude, from Old French esmeraude (12c.), from Medieval Latin esmaraldus, from Latin smaragdus, from Greek smaragdos "green gem" (emerald or malachite), from Semitic baraq "shine" (compare Hebrew bareqeth "emerald," Arabic barq "lightning").

Sanskrit maragata "emerald" is from the same source, as is Persian zumurrud, whence Turkish zümrüd, source of Russian izumrud "emerald." For the unetymological e-, see e-.

In early examples the word, like most other names of precious stones, is of vague meaning; the mediæval references to the stone are often based upon the descriptions given by classical writers of the smaragdus, the identity of which with our emerald is doubtful. [OED]

Emerald Isle for "Ireland" is from 1795.

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Definitions of emerald

emerald (n.)
a green transparent form of beryl; highly valued as a gemstone;
emerald (n.)
a transparent piece of emerald that has been cut and polished and is valued as a precious gem;
emerald (n.)
the green color of an emerald;
From wordnet.princeton.edu