Etymology
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Words related to ego

I (pron.)

12c., a shortening of Old English ic, the first person singular nominative pronoun, from Proto-Germanic *ek (source also of Old Frisian ik, Old Norse ek, Norwegian eg, Danish jeg, Old High German ih, German ich, Gothic ik), from PIE *eg- "I," nominative form of the first person singular pronoun (source also of Sanskrit aham, Hittite uk, Latin ego (source of French Je), Greek ego, Russian ja, Lithuanian ).

Reduced to i by mid-12c. in northern England, later everywhere; the form ich or ik, especially before vowels, lingered in northern England until c. 1400 and survived in southern dialects until 18c. It began to be capitalized mid-13c. to mark it as a distinct word and avoid misreading in handwritten manuscripts.

The reason for writing I is ... the orthographic habit in the middle ages of using a 'long i' (that is, j or I) whenever the letter was isolated or formed the last letter of a group; the numeral 'one' was written j or I (and three iij, etc.), just as much as the pronoun. [Otto Jespersen, "Growth and Structure of the English Language," p.233]

The dot on the "small" letter -i- began to appear in 11c. Latin manuscripts to distinguish the letter from the stroke of another letter (such as -m- or -n-). Originally a diacritic, it was reduced to a dot with the introduction of Roman type fonts. The letter -y- also was written with a top dot in Old English and early Middle English, during the centuries when -i- tended to be written with a closed loop at the top and thus was almost indistinguishable from the lower-case thorn (þ). In names of U.S. highways (by 1966) it is short for Interstate (adj.).

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trip (n.)
"act or action of tripping" (transitive), early 14c., from trip (v.); sense of "a short journey or voyage" is from mid-15c.; the exact connection to the earlier sense is uncertain. The meaning "psychedelic drug experience" is first recorded 1959 as a noun; the verb in this sense is from 1966, from the noun.
alter ego (n.)
"second self, counterpart," 1530s, from Latin phrase (used by Cicero), "a second self, a trusted friend" (compare Greek allos ego); see alter and ego.
egocentric (adj.)
1890, from ego + -centric. Related: Egocentricity; egocentrism.
egoism (n.)
1785, in metaphysics, "the theory that a person has no proof that anything exists outside his own mind," from French égoisme (1755), from Modern Latin egoismus, from Latin ego (see ego). Meaning "doing or seeking of that which affords pleasure or advances interest" is from 1800; opposed to altruism, but not necessarily "selfish." Meaning "self-centeredness" is from 1840. Between egoism and egotism, egoism is more correctly formed; there formerly was a useful distinction, with egotism tending to take the senses "self-centeredness" and "extensive use of 'I'" and leaving to egoism the theoretical sense in metaphysics and ethics.
egoist (n.)
1763, in metaphysics, "one who maintains there is no evidence of the existence of anything but the self" (taking ego in a sense of "thinking subject"), from French égoiste (1755); see ego + -ist. Meaning "selfish person" is from 1879. Related: Egoistic; egoistical.
egomania (n.)

"obsessive self-centeredness," 1825 (in a letter of English critic William Sidney Walker, published in 1852), from ego + mania. Not in common use before 1890s, where it translated German Ich-Sucht.

[The egomaniac, as opposed to the megalomaniac,] does not regard it as necessary to dream of himself as occupying some invented social position. He does not require the world or its appreciation to justify in his own eyes himself as the sole object of his own interest. He does not see the world at all. Other people simply do not exist for him. The whole 'non-Ego' appears in his consciousness merely as a vague shadow or a thin cloud. The idea does not even occur to him that he is something out of the common, that he is superior to other people, and for this reason either admired or hated ; he is alone in the world ; more than that, he alone is the world and everything else, men, animals, things are unimportant accessories, not worth thinking about. [Max Nordau, "Degeneration," English translation, 1895]

Nordau's book was much-read, debated, and cited at the time and the word was associated with him (e.g. The Agora, July 1895).

Walker's use aside, its infrequent print appearance before 1895 seems to have been largely in the side of medicine that dealt with psychological matters:

The most frequent, yet the most extraordinary of these perversions of temper, are seen in young females. It is a species of aberration of the intellect, but short of insanity, real enough, but exaggerated, fictitious, factitious, and real at the same time. It frequently has its origin in dyspepsia, hysteria, or other malady, and in emotion of various kinds, such as disappointment, vexation, &c. Its object is frequently to excite and to maintain a state of active sympathy and attention, for which there, is as it were, a perpetual, morbid, and jealous thirst. It was rather aptly designated, by the clever relative of one patient, an ego-mania. [Marshall Hall, M.D., "Practical Observations and Suggestions in Medicine," London, 1845]
egotheism (n.)
"deification of the self," 1855, from ego + -theism. Related: Egotheist (1849); egotheistic.
egotism (n.)
1714, "too frequent use of 'I'," from ego + -ism. First used by Joseph Addison, who credits the term to "Port-Royalists" who used it in reference to obtrusive use of first person singular pronoun in writing, hence "talking too much about oneself." Meaning "self-conceit, selfishness" is from 1800. The -t- is abnormal, perhaps by influence of dogmatism.
egotist (n.)
1714, "one who makes too frequent use of the first-person singular pronoun," see ego + -ist. First attested in Joseph Addison (see egotism). Related: Egotistic; egotistical; egotistically.