Etymology
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edge (n.)

Old English ecg "corner, edge, point," also "sword" (also found in ecgplega, literally "edge play," ecghete, literally "edge hate," both used poetically for "battle"), from Proto-Germanic *agjo (source also of Old Frisian egg "edge;" Old Saxon eggia "point, edge;" Middle Dutch egghe, Dutch eg; Old Norse egg, see egg (v.); Old High German ecka, German Eck "corner"), from PIE root *ak- "be sharp, rise (out) to a point, pierce."

Spelling development of Old English -cg to Middle English -gg to Modern English -dge represents a widespread shift in pronunciation. To get the edge on (someone) is U.S. colloquial, first recorded 1911. Edge city is from Joel Garreau's 1992 book of that name. Razor's edge as a perilous narrow path translates Greek epi xyrou akmes. To be on edge "excited or irritable" is from 1872; to have (one's) teeth on edge is from late 14c., though "It is not quite clear what is the precise notion originally expressed in this phrase" [OED].

edge (v.)

late 13c., "to give an edge to" (implied in past participle egged), from edge (n.). Intransitive meaning "to move edgeways (with the edge toward the spectator), advance slowly" is from 1620s, originally nautical. Meaning "to defeat by a narrow margin" is from 1953. The meaning "urge on, incite" (16c.) often must be a mistake for egg (v.). Related: Edger.

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Definitions of edge
1
edge (n.)
the boundary of a surface;
Synonyms: border
edge (n.)
a line determining the limits of an area;
Synonyms: boundary / bound
edge (n.)
a sharp side formed by the intersection of two surfaces of an object;
he rounded the edges of the box
edge (n.)
the attribute of urgency in tone of voice;
his voice had an edge to it
Synonyms: sharpness
edge (n.)
a slight competitive advantage;
he had an edge on the competition
edge (n.)
the outside limit of an object or area or surface; a place farthest away from the center of something;
the edge of the leaf is wavy
she sat on the edge of the bed
the water's edge
2
edge (v.)
advance slowly, as if by inches;
He edged towards the car
Synonyms: inch
edge (v.)
provide with a border or edge;
edge the tablecloth with embroidery
Synonyms: border
edge (v.)
lie adjacent to another or share a boundary;
Synonyms: border / adjoin / abut / march / butt / butt against / butt on
edge (v.)
provide with an edge;
edge a blade
From wordnet.princeton.edu