Etymology
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dominant (adj.)

mid-15c., dominaunt, in ordre dominaunt, the name of the fourth order of angels, from Old French dominant (13c.) and directly from Latin dominantem (nominative dominans), present participle of dominari "to rule, dominate, to govern," from dominus "lord, master," from domus "house" (from PIE root *dem- "house, household").

From 1530s as "exercising rule or chief authority;" by 1854 as "having a controlling effect or influence." Music sense "based on or belonging to the fifth tone of the scale" is from 1819. Sexual bondage sense "exerting control over the submissive partner" is by c. 1960. The noun is first recorded 1819, earliest in the musical sense. Related: Dominantly.

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Definitions of dominant
1
dominant (adj.)
exercising influence or control;
the dominant partner in the marriage
television plays a dominant role in molding public opinion
dominant (adj.)
(of genes) producing the same phenotype whether its allele is identical or dissimilar;
dominant (adj.)
most frequent or common;
2
dominant (n.)
(music) the fifth note of the diatonic scale;
dominant (n.)
an allele that produces the same phenotype whether its paired allele is identical or different;
Synonyms: dominant allele
From wordnet.princeton.edu