mid-15c., "place of residence of a person or family," from Old French domicile (14c.) and directly from Latin domicilium, perhaps from domus "house" (from PIE root *dem- "house, household") + colere "to dwell" (see colony). In law, specifically, "that residence from which there is no intention to remove, or a general intention to return" (mid-18c.).
As a verb, "to establish in a fixed residence," it is attested by 1762 (implied in domiciled). Related: Domiciliary.