Etymology
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Words related to dog

dogged (adj.)

"having the qualities of a dog" (mostly in a negative sense, "mean, surly, contemptible"), c. 1300, from dog (n.). Meaning "persistent, silently obstinate" is from 1779. Hence doggedly (late 14c.), "cruelly, maliciously;" later "with a dog's persistence" (1773). Related: Doggedness.

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*kwon- 

Proto-Indo-European root meaning "dog."

It forms all or part of: canaille; canary; canicular; canid; canine; chenille; corgi; cynic; cynical; cynosure; dachshund; hound; kennel; Procyon; quinsy.

It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit svan-, Avestan spa, Greek kyōn, Latin canis, Old English hund, Old High German hunt, Old Irish cu, Welsh ci, Russian sobaka (apparently from an Iranian source such as Median spaka), Armenian shun, Lithuanian šuo "dog."

bird-dog (n.)
"dog used in hunting game birds," 1832, from bird (n.1) + dog (n.). Hence the verb (1941) meaning "to follow closely."
bulldog (n.)
also bull-dog, "small, strong, muscular kind of dog noted for courage and ferocity," c. 1500, from bull (n.1) + dog (n.). So called perhaps from the shape, perhaps because they originally were used for baiting bulls. In U.S. newspaper slang, the bulldog edition (1910) was the earliest run of a daily paper.
dawg (n.)
colloquial for dog, attested from 1898.
dog-collar (n.)

"collar made for a dog," 1520s, from dog (n.) + collar (n.).

dogface (n.)

"soldier in the U.S. Army," especially an infantryman, by 1941, from dog (n.) + face (n.). Said to have been originally a contemptuous name given by the Marines.

dogfight (n.)

also dog-fight, "aerial combat," World War I air forces slang, from earlier meaning "riotous brawl" (1880s); from dog (n.) + fight (n.). The literal sense of "a fight among or between dogs" is from 1650s (Middle English had dogg feghttyng, c. 1500).

dogfish (n.)

a name for various types of small shark, mid-15c., dogge fysch, from dog (n.) + fish (n.). It is said to be so called because it hunts in packs. The wild dog was the image of sharks in classical antiquity as well, and Greek used kyon "dog" also for dogfish and sharks, especially the smaller kind.

But in the Mediterranean, among the Greeks and Romans of antiquity, closer contact with sharks had left an impression of vicious dogs of the sea. Thus, Pliny's canis marinus. The metaphor of the dog spread to the North to dominate the European image of the shark, from the Italian pescecane and French chien de mer to the German Meerhund and Hundfisch and English sea dog and dogfish. [Tom Jones, "The Xoc, the Sharke and the Sea Dogs," in "Fifth Palenque Round Table, 1983," edited by Virginia M. Field, 1985.]

Greek galeos "dogfish or shark" perhaps is based on galen "weasel, marten," which also was a fish name.

doggerel (n.)

1630s, "Any rhyming verse in which the meter is forced into metronomic regularity by the stressing of normally unstressed syllables and in which rhyme is forced or banal" [Miller Williams, "Patterns of Poetry"]. Earlier as an adjective (rim doggerel, late 14c.), an epithet applied to loose, irregular verse in burlesque poetry.

Probably from pejorative suffix -rel + dog (n.), but the sense connection is not obvious. Perhaps it was applied to bad poetry with a suggestion of puppyish clumsiness, or being fit only for dogs, or from the "mean, contemptible" associations of dog in Middle English. Attested as a surname from late 13c., but the sense is not evident. Related: Doggerelist.