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dog (n.)

"quadruped of the genus Canis," Old English docga, a late, rare word, used in at least one Middle English source in reference specifically to a powerful breed of canine; other early Middle English uses tend to be depreciatory or abusive. Its origin remains one of the great mysteries of English etymology.

The word forced out Old English hund (the general Germanic and Indo-European word, from root from PIE root *kwon-) by 16c. and subsequently was picked up in many continental languages (French dogue (16c.), Danish dogge, German Dogge (16c.)). The common Spanish word for "dog," perro, also is a mystery word of unknown origin, perhaps from Iberian. A group of Slavic "dog" words (Old Church Slavonic pisu, Polish pies, Serbo-Croatian pas) likewise is of unknown origin. 

In reference to persons, by c. 1200 in abuse or contempt as "a mean, worthless fellow, currish, sneaking scoundrel." Playfully abusive sense of "rakish man," especially if young, "a sport, a gallant" is from 1610s. Slang meaning "ugly woman" is from 1930s; that of "sexually aggressive man" is from 1950s.  

Many expressions — a dog's life (c. 1600), go to the dogs (1610s), dog-cheap (1520s), etc. — reflect the earlier hard use of the animals as hunting accessories, not pets. In ancient times, "the dog" was the worst throw in dice (attested in Greek, Latin, and Sanskrit, where the word for "the lucky player" was literally "the dog-killer"), which plausibly explains the Greek word for "danger," kindynos, which appears to be "play the dog" (but Beekes is against this).

Notwithstanding, as a dog hath a day, so may I perchance have time to declare it in deeds. [Princess Elizabeth, 1550]

Meaning "something poor or mediocre, a failure" is by 1936 in U.S. slang. From late 14c. as the name for a heavy metal clamp of some kind. Dog's age "a long time" is by 1836. Adjectival phrase dog-eat-dog "ruthlessly competitive" is by 1850s. Phrase put on the dog "get dressed up" (1934) may be from comparison of dog collars to the stiff stand-up shirt collars that in the 1890s were the height of male fashion (and were known as dog-collars from at least 1883).

And Caesar's spirit, ranging for revenge,
With Ate by his side come hot from Hell,
Shall in these confines with a monarch's voice
Cry Havoc! and let slip the dogs of war;
[Shakespeare, "Julius Caesar"]

dog (v.)

"to track as a hunting dog does, keep at the heels of," 1510s, see dog (n.). Related: Dogged; dogging.

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Definitions of dog from WordNet
1
dog (n.)
a member of the genus Canis (probably descended from the common wolf) that has been domesticated by man since prehistoric times; occurs in many breeds;
the dog barked all night
Synonyms: domestic dog / Canis familiaris
dog (n.)
a dull unattractive unpleasant girl or woman;
she's a real dog
Synonyms: frump
dog (n.)
informal term for a man;
you lucky dog
dog (n.)
someone who is morally reprehensible;
you dirty dog
Synonyms: cad / bounder / blackguard / hound / heel
dog (n.)
a smooth-textured sausage of minced beef or pork usually smoked; often served on a bread roll;
Synonyms: frank / frankfurter / hotdog / hot dog / wiener / wienerwurst / weenie
dog (n.)
a hinged catch that fits into a notch of a ratchet to move a wheel forward or prevent it from moving backward;
Synonyms: pawl / detent / click
dog (n.)
metal supports for logs in a fireplace;
Synonyms: andiron / firedog / dog-iron
2
dog (v.)
go after with the intent to catch;
the dog chased the rabbit
Synonyms: chase / chase after / trail / tail / tag / give chase / go after / track
From wordnet.princeton.edu