Etymology
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do (v.)

"perform, execute, achieve, carry out, bring to pass by procedure of any kind," etc., etc., Middle English do, first person singular of Old English don "make, act, perform, cause; to put, to place," from West Germanic *doanan (source also of Old Saxon duan, Old Frisian dwa, Dutch doen, Old High German tuon, German tun), from PIE root *dhe- "to set, put, place."

Use as an auxiliary began in Middle English. Sense of "to put, place, lay" is obsolete except in phrases such as do away with. Periphrastic form in negative sentences (They did not think) replaced the Old English negative particles (Hie ne wendon).

Meaning "visit as a tourist" is from 1817. In old slang it meant "to hoax, cheat, swindle" (1640s). Slang meaning "to do the sex act with or to" is from 1913.

Slang do in "bring disaster upon, kill" is by 1905. To have to do with "have concern or connection with" is from late 13c. To do without "dispense with" is from 1713.  Expression do or die indicating determination to succeed despite dangers or obstacles is attested from 1620s.

Compare does, did, done.

do (n.1)

1590s, "commotion, trouble" (a sense now obsolete), from do (v.). From 1630s as "act of doing;" by 1824 as "something done in a set or formal manner;" by 1835 as "a cheat, a swindle." Phrase do's and dont's "things that out and ought not to be done" (variously apostrophed) is by 1899.

do (n.2)

first (and last) note of the diatonic scale, by 1754, from do, used as a substitution for ut (see gamut) for sonority's sake, first in Italy and Germany. U.S. slang do-re-mi "money" is from 1920s, probably a pun on dough in its slang sense of "cash."

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Definitions of do
1
do (v.)
engage in;
do nothing
do research
Synonyms: make
do (v.)
carry out or perform an action;
John did the painting, the weeding, and he cleaned out the gutters
she did a little dance
Synonyms: perform / execute
do (v.)
get (something) done;
I did my job
Synonyms: perform
do (v.)
proceed or get along;
How is she doing in her new job?
Synonyms: fare / make out / come / get along
do (v.)
give rise to; cause to happen or occur, not always intentionally;
Synonyms: cause / make
do (v.)
carry out or practice; as of jobs and professions;
Synonyms: practice / practise / exercise
do (v.)
be sufficient; be adequate, either in quality or quantity;
Will $100 do?
Synonyms: suffice / answer / serve
do (v.)
create or design, often in a certain way;
I did this piece in wood to express my love for the forest
Synonyms: make
do (v.)
behave in a certain manner; show a certain behavior; conduct or comport oneself;
What makes her do this way?
Synonyms: act / behave
do (v.)
spend time in prison or in a labor camp;
He did six years for embezzlement
Synonyms: serve
do (v.)
carry on or function;
We could do with a little more help around here
Synonyms: manage
do (v.)
arrange attractively;
Synonyms: dress / arrange / set / coif / coiffe / coiffure
do (v.)
travel or traverse (a distance);
We did 6 miles on our hike every day
2
do (n.)
an uproarious party;
Synonyms: bash / brawl
do (n.)
the syllable naming the first (tonic) note of any major scale in solmization;
Synonyms: doh / ut
do (n.)
doctor's degree in osteopathy;
Synonyms: Doctor of Osteopathy
From wordnet.princeton.edu