Etymology
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depth (n.)

late 14c., "a deep place, deep water, the sea," also "distance or extension from the top down (opposed to height) or from without inward," apparently formed in Middle English on model of long/length, broad/breadth; from dēp "deep" (see deep (adj.)) + -th (2). Replaced older deopnes "deepness." Though the word is not recorded in Old English, the formation was in Proto-Germanic, *deupitho-, and corresponds to Old Saxon diupitha, Dutch diepte, Old Norse dypð, Gothic diupiþa.

From c. 1400 as "the part of anything most remote from the boundary or outer limit." From 1520s as "quality of extending a considerable distance downward or inward." Figurative use in reference to thought, ideas, etc., "profoundness," from 1580s.

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Definitions of depth

depth (n.)
the extent downward or backward or inward;
depth of a closet
depth of a shelf
the depth of the water
Synonyms: deepness
depth (n.)
degree of psychological or intellectual profundity;
depth (n.)
(usually plural) a low moral state;
he had sunk to the depths of addiction
depth (n.)
the intellectual ability to penetrate deeply into ideas;
Synonyms: astuteness / profundity / profoundness / deepness
depth (n.)
the attribute or quality of being deep, strong, or intense;
the depth of his emotion
the depth of his sighs
the depth of his breathing
From wordnet.princeton.edu