Etymology
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cosmonaut (n.)

"a Russian astronaut," 1959, Englishing of Russian kosmonavt, which is ultimately from Greek kosmos (see cosmo-) + nautes "sailor" (from PIE root *nau- "boat"). In reference to space travel, cosmonautic is attested by 1947.

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Definitions of cosmonaut

cosmonaut (n.)
a person trained to travel in a spacecraft;
the Russians called their astronauts cosmonauts
Synonyms: astronaut / spaceman
From wordnet.princeton.edu