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conviction (n.)

mid-15c., "the proving or finding of guilt of an offense charged," from Late Latin convictionem (nominative convictio) "proof, refutation," noun of action from past-participle stem of convincere "to overcome decisively," from com-, here perhaps an intensive prefix (see com-), + vincere "to conquer" (from nasalized form of PIE root *weik- (3) "to fight, conquer").

Meaning "mental state of being convinced or fully persuaded" is from 1690s; that of "firm belief, a belief held as proven" is from 1841. In a religious sense, "state of being convinced one has acted in opposition to conscience, admonition of the conscience," from 1670s.

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Definitions of conviction from WordNet

conviction (n.)
an unshakable belief in something without need for proof or evidence;
Synonyms: strong belief / article of faith
conviction (n.)
(criminal law) a final judgment of guilty in a criminal case and the punishment that is imposed;
the conviction came as no surprise
Synonyms: judgment of conviction / condemnation / sentence
From wordnet.princeton.edu