Etymology
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convert (v.)

c. 1300, "a change or turn from one religion to another," especially to Christianity, from Old French convertir "to turn around, turn towards; change, transform; convert, win over," from Vulgar Latin *convertire, from Latin convertere "turn around, transform," from assimilated form of com "with, together" (see con-) + vertere "to turn" (from PIE root *wer- (2) "to turn, bend").

The Latin verb was glossed in Old English by gecyrren, from cierran "to turn, return." General sense of "change into another form or substance, transmute" is from late 14c. Transitive sense of "turn from one use or destination to another" is from late 15c. Related: Converted; converting.

convert (n.)

1560s, "person whose faith has been changed from one religion to another," from convert (v.). Earlier was convers (early 14c.), from Old French converse (n.). General (non-religious) sense of "person converted from one opinion or practice to another" is from 1640s.

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Definitions of convert
1
convert (v.)
change from one system to another or to a new plan or policy;
We converted from 220 to 110 Volt
Synonyms: change over
convert (v.)
change the nature, purpose, or function of something;
convert lead into gold
convert hotels into jails
convert slaves to laborers
convert (v.)
change religious beliefs, or adopt a religious belief;
She converted to Buddhism
convert (v.)
cause to adopt a new or different faith;
The missionaries converted the Indian population
convert (v.)
score an extra point or points after touchdown by kicking the ball through the uprights or advancing the ball into the end zone;
Smith converted and his team won
convert (v.)
complete successfully;
convert (v.)
score (a spare);
convert (v.)
make (someone) agree, understand, or realize the truth or validity of something;
Synonyms: win over / convince
convert (v.)
exchange a penalty for a less severe one;
Synonyms: commute / exchange
convert (v.)
change in nature, purpose, or function; undergo a chemical change;
The substance converts to an acid
convert (v.)
exchange or replace with another, usually of the same kind or category;
Could you convert my dollars into pounds?
convert holdings into shares
convert centimeters into inches
Synonyms: change / exchange / commute
2
convert (n.)
a person who has been converted to another religious or political belief;
From wordnet.princeton.edu