Etymology
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common (adj.)

c. 1300, "belonging to all, owned or used jointly, general, of a public nature or character," from Old French comun "common, general, free, open, public" (9c., Modern French commun), from Latin communis "in common, public, shared by all or many; general, not specific; familiar, not pretentious." This is from a reconstructed PIE compound *ko-moin-i- "held in common," compound adjective formed from *ko- "together" + *moi-n-, suffixed form of root *mei- (1) "to change, go, move," hence literally "shared by all."

The second element of the compound also is the source of Latin munia "duties, public duties, functions," those related to munia "office." Perhaps reinforced in Old French by the Germanic form of PIE *ko-moin-i- (compare German gemein, Old English gemne "common, public, general, universal;" see mean (adj.)), which came to French via Frankish.

Used disparagingly of women and criminals since c. 1300. Meaning "pertaining equally to or proceeding equally from two or more" is from c. 1400. Meaning "usual, not exceptional, of frequent occurrence" is from late 14c. Sense of "not distinguished, belonging to the general mass" is from c. 1400; of things, "ordinary, not excellent," late 14c.

Common pleas is 13c., from Anglo-French communs plets, hearing civil actions by one subject against another as opposed to pleas of the crown. Common prayer is that done in public in unity with other worshipers; contrasted with private prayer. Common stock is attested from 1888. Common speech (late 14c.) is the vernacular, as opposed to Latin. Common good (late 14c.) translates Latin bonum publicum "the common weal." The college common room (1660s) is one to which all members have common access. 

Origin and meaning of common

common (n.)

c. 1300, "a fellowship or brotherhood; early 14c., "people of a community or town, freemen, citizenry;" late 15c., "land held in common," from Old French commune and Medieval Latin communia, and partly from common (adj.). Also compare commons. Latin communis "common, general" (adj.) also served as a noun meaning "common property; state, commonwealth."

Origin and meaning of common

updated on October 13, 2021

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Definitions of common from WordNet
1
common (adj.)
belonging to or participated in by a community as a whole; public;
common lands are set aside for use by all members of a community
for the common good
common (adj.)
having no special distinction or quality; widely known or commonly encountered; average or ordinary or usual;
the common cold
the common housefly
followed common procedure
the common man
a common nuisance
a common brand of soap
a common sailor
it is common knowledge that she lives alone
common (adj.)
common to or shared by two or more parties;
a common friend
Synonyms: mutual
common (adj.)
commonly encountered;
a common (or familiar) complaint
Synonyms: usual
common (adj.)
being or characteristic of or appropriate to everyday language;
common parlance
Synonyms: vernacular / vulgar
common (adj.)
of or associated with the great masses of people;
the common people in those days suffered greatly
behavior that branded him as common
Synonyms: plebeian / vulgar / unwashed
common (adj.)
of low or inferior quality or value; "of what coarse metal ye are molded"- Shakespeare;
produced...the common cloths used by the poorer population
Synonyms: coarse
common (adj.)
lacking refinement or cultivation or taste;
behavior that branded him as common
Synonyms: coarse / rough-cut / uncouth / vulgar
common (adj.)
to be expected; standard;
common decency
2
common (n.)
a piece of open land for recreational use in an urban area;
Synonyms: park / commons / green
From wordnet.princeton.edu, not affiliated with etymonline.