Etymology
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column (n.)

mid-15c., "a pillar, long, cylindrical architectural support," also "vertical division of a page," from Old French colombe (12c., Modern French colonne "column, pillar"), from Latin columna "pillar," collateral form of columen "top, summit," from PIE root *kel- (2) "to be prominent; hill."

In the military sense "formation of troops narrow in front and extending back" from 1670s, opposed to a line, which is extended in front and thin in depth. Sense of "matter written for a newspaper" (the contents of a column of type) dates from 1785.

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Definitions of column

column (n.)
a line of units following one after another;
column (n.)
a vertical glass tube used in column chromatography; a mixture is poured in the top and washed through a stationary substance where components of the mixture are adsorbed selectively to form colored bands;
Synonyms: chromatography column
column (n.)
a vertical array of numbers or other information;
he added a column of numbers
column (n.)
anything that approximates the shape of a column or tower;
the test tube held a column of white powder
Synonyms: tower / pillar
column (n.)
an article giving opinions or perspectives;
Synonyms: editorial / newspaper column
column (n.)
a vertical cylindrical structure standing alone and not supporting anything (such as a monument);
Synonyms: pillar
column (n.)
(architecture) a tall vertical cylindrical structure standing upright and used to support a structure;
Synonyms: pillar
column (n.)
a page or text that is vertically divided;
the newspaper devoted several columns to the subject
the bookkeeper used pages that were divided into columns
column (n.)
any tubular or pillar-like supporting structure in the body;
From wordnet.princeton.edu