color (n.)

early 13c., "skin color, complexion," from Anglo-French culur, coulour, Old French color "color, complexion, appearance" (Modern French couleur), from Latin color "color of the skin; color in general, hue; appearance," from Old Latin colos, originally "a covering" (akin to celare "to hide, conceal"), from PIE root *kel- (1) "to cover, conceal, save." Old English words for "color" were hiw ("hue"), bleo. For sense evolution, compare Sanskrit varnah "covering, color," which is related to vrnoti "covers," and also see chroma.

Colour was the usual English spelling from 14c., from Anglo-French. Classical correction made color an alternative from 15c., and that spelling became established in the U.S. (see -or). 

Meaning "a hue or tint, a visible color, the color of something" is from c. 1300. As "color as an inherent property of matter, that quality of a thing or appearance which is perceived by the eye alone," from late 14c. From early 14c. as "a coloring matter, pigment, dye." From mid-14c. as "kind, sort, variety, description." From late 14c. in figurative sense of "stylistic device, embellishment. From c. 1300 as "a reason or argument advanced by way of justifying, explaining, or excusing an action," hence "specious reason or argument, that which hides the real character of something" (late 14c.).

From c. 1300 as "distinctive mark of identification" (as of a badge or insignia or livery, later of a prize-fighter, horse-rider, etc.), originally in reference to a coat of arms. Hence figurative sense as in show one's (true) colors "reveal one's opinions or intentions;" compare colors.

In reference to "the hue of the darker (as distinguished from the 'white') varieties of mankind" [OED], attested from 1792, in people of colour, in translations from French in reference to the French colony of Saint-Domingue (modern Haiti) and there meaning "mulattoes."

In reference to musical tone from 1590s. Color-scheme is from 1860. Color-coded is by 1943, in reference to wiring in radios and military aircraft. Color-line in reference to social and legal discrimination by race in the U.S. is from 1875, originally referring to Southern whites voting in unity and taking back control of state governments during Reconstruction (it had been called white line about a year earlier, and with more accuracy).

color (v.)

late 14c., colouren, "to make (something) a certain color, to give or apply color to," also figurative "to use (words) to a certain effect; to make (something) appear different from reality or better than it is," from Old French culurer, colorer, and directly from Latin colorare, from color (see color (n.)). Intransitive sense "become red in the face" is from 1721. Related: Colored; coloring.

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Definitions of color
color (n.)
a visual attribute of things that results from the light they emit or transmit or reflect;
a white color is made up of many different wavelengths of light
Synonyms: colour / coloring / colouring
color (n.)
interest and variety and intensity;
the Puritan Period was lacking in color
Synonyms: colour / vividness
color (n.)
the timbre of a musical sound;
the recording fails to capture the true color of the original music
Synonyms: colour / coloration / colouration
color (n.)
an outward or token appearance or form that is deliberately misleading;
the situation soon took on a different color
Synonyms: semblance / gloss / colour
color (n.)
any material used for its color;
she used a different color for the trim
Synonyms: coloring material / colouring material / colour
color (n.)
(physics) the characteristic of quarks that determines their role in the strong interaction;
each flavor of quarks comes in three colors
Synonyms: colour
color (n.)
the appearance of objects (or light sources) described in terms of a person's perception of their hue and lightness (or brightness) and saturation;
Synonyms: colour
color (v.)
add color to;
The child colored the drawings
Fall colored the trees
Synonyms: colorize / colorise / colourise / colourize / colour / color in / colour in
color (v.)
affect as in thought or feeling;
My personal feelings color my judgment in this case
Synonyms: tinge / colour / distort
color (v.)
modify or bias;
His political ideas color his lectures
Synonyms: colour
color (v.)
decorate with colors;
color the walls with paint in warm tones
Synonyms: colour / emblazon
color (v.)
give a deceptive explanation or excuse for;
color a lie
Synonyms: colour / gloss
color (v.)
change color, often in an undesired manner;
Synonyms: discolor / discolour / colour
color (adj.)
having or capable of producing colors;
he rented a color television
color film
marvelous color illustrations
Synonyms: colour