Etymology
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Words related to colon

colectomy (n.)

"surgical excision of part of the colon," 1882, from combining form of colon (n.2) + -ectomy "a cutting, surgical removal."

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colic (n.)
Origin and meaning of colic

"disease characterized by severe spasmodic abdominal pain," early 15c., from Late Latin colicus "pertaining to colic," from Greek kolikos, belonging to the kolon "lower intestine" (see colon (n.2)). The word was used in English late 14c. as an adjective, "affecting the colon." Related: Colicky (1742).

colitis (n.)

"inflammation of the mucous membrane of the colon," 1860, from combining form of colon (n.2) + -itis "inflammation."

colonic (adj.)

"pertaining to or affecting the colon," 1906, from colon (n.2) + adjectival ending -ic.

colonoscopy (n.)

by 1902 (earlier procto-colonoscopy, 1896), from colon (n.2) + -scopy. Colonoscope is attested from 1884 

colorectal (adj.)

"pertaining to the colon and the rectum," by 1918, from combining form of colon (n.2) + rectal.

colostomy (n.)

1888, from combining form of colon (n.2) + Modern Latin -stoma "opening, orifice," from Greek stoma "opening, mouth" (see stoma). Colotomy "operation of making an incision in the colon" is attested from 1860, from Greek tome "a cutting."

decolonization (n.)

1853 in a political sense, "remove (a place) from colonial status," American English, from de- + colonization. Earlier as a medical term (from colon (n.2)).

The great occupation of the nations of western Europe, from the beginning of the fifteenth century to near the close of the eighteenth century, was colonization and the establishment of empire on the American continent. The year 1775 witnessed the opening of the first act in the great drama of the decolonization of this continent, the end of which is not yet. [Speech of Hon. W.H. Seward of New York in the Senate, February 8, 1853, in Appendix to the Congressional Globe, 2nd Session, 32nd Congress]
E. coli (n.)

bacteria inhabiting the gut of man and animals, by 1921, short for Escherichia coli (1911), named for German physician Theodor Escherich (1857-1911) with Latin genitive of colon "colon" (see colon (n.2)).

comma (n.)

punctuation mark, 1520s as a Latin word, nativized by 1590s, from Latin comma "short phrase or clause of a sentence or line of poetry," from Greek komma "clause in a sentence," also ""stamp, coinage," literally "piece which is cut off," from koptein "to strike, smite, cut off; disable, tire out," which is perhaps from PIE root *kop- "to beat, strike, smite" (see hatchet (n.)), or perhaps Pre-Greek.

Like colon (n.1) and period it was originally a Greek rhetorical term for a part of a sentence, and like them it has been transferred to the punctuation mark that identifies it. In reading aloud the punctuation mark is used to admit small interruptions in continuity of speech for the sake of clarity, but its purpose is to indicate grammatical structure.