Etymology
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cog (n.)

c. 1300, "wheel having teeth or cogs;" late 14c., "tooth on a wheel," probably a borrowing from a Scandinavian language (compare Norwegian kugg "cog") and cognate with Middle High German kugel "ball."

updated on January 10, 2018

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Definitions of cog from WordNet
1
cog (v.)
roll steel ingots;
cog (v.)
join pieces of wood with cogs;
2
cog (n.)
a subordinate who performs an important but routine function;
he was a small cog in a large machine
cog (n.)
tooth on the rim of gear wheel;
Synonyms: sprocket
From wordnet.princeton.edu, not affiliated with etymonline.