Etymology
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claim (v.)

c. 1300, "to call, call out; to ask or demand by virtue of right or authority," from accented stem of Old French clamer "to call, name, describe; claim; complain; declare," from Latin clamare "to cry out, shout, proclaim," from PIE root *kele- (2) "to shout." Related: Claimed; claiming.

Meaning "to maintain as true, assert a belief or opinion" is from 1864 ("A common use, regarded by many as inelegant" - Century Dictionary, 1895); claim properly should not stray too far from its true meaning of "to demand recognition of a right." Specific sense "to make a claim" (on an insurance company) is from 1897.

claim (n.)

early 14c., "a demand of a right; right of claiming," from Old French claime "claim, complaint," from clamer (see claim (v.)). Meaning "thing claimed or demanded" is from 1792; specifically "piece of land allotted and taken" (chiefly U.S. and Australia, in reference to mining); claim-jumper is attested from 1839. Insurance sense "application for guaranteed compensation" is from 1878.

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Definitions of claim
1
claim (n.)
an assertion of a right (as to money or property);
his claim asked for damages
claim (n.)
an assertion that something is true or factual;
evidence contradicted the government's claims
his claim that he was innocent
claim (n.)
demand for something as rightful or due;
they struck in support of their claim for a shorter work day
claim (n.)
an informal right to something;
his claim on her attentions
Synonyms: title
claim (n.)
an established or recognized right;
he staked his claim
a strong legal claim to the property
Synonyms: title
claim (n.)
a demand especially in the phrase "the call of duty";
Synonyms: call
2
claim (v.)
assert or affirm strongly; state to be true or existing;
He claimed that he killed the burglar
claim (v.)
demand as being one's due or property; assert one's right or title to;
Mr. Smith claims special tax exemptions because he is a foreign resident
He claimed his suitcases at the airline counter
Synonyms: lay claim / arrogate
claim (v.)
ask for legally or make a legal claim to, as of debts, for example;
They claimed on the maximum allowable amount
claim (v.)
lay claim to; as of an idea;
Synonyms: take
claim (v.)
take as an undesirable consequence of some event or state of affairs;
the accident claimed three lives
Synonyms: take / exact
From wordnet.princeton.edu