word-forming element meaning "around, round about, all around, on all sides," from Latin adverb and preposition circum "around, round about," literally "in a circle," probably accusative form of circus "ring" (see circus). The Latin word was commonly used in word-formation. In French, the element became circon-; Kitchin points out that con for cum is common even in classical Latin. For sense development, compare German rings "around."
1550s, "from or found in the regions near the poles of the Earth," from French polaire (16c.) or directly from Medieval Latin polaris "of or pertaining to the poles," from Latin polus "an end of an axis" (see pole (n.2)). By 1816 as "of or pertaining to a pole or poles of a sphere." Meaning "directly opposite in character or tendency" is attested from 1832. Polar bear is attested from 1781.
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<a href="https://www.etymonline.com/word/circumpolar">Etymology of circumpolar by etymonline</a>
Harper, D. (n.d.). Etymology of circumpolar. Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved $(datetime), from https://www.etymonline.com/word/circumpolar