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chuck (v.1)

"to throw," 1590s, variant of chock "give a blow under the chin" (1580s), possibly from French choquer "to shock, strike against," imitative (see shock (n.1)). Meaning "pat playfully, give ablow to" is from 1610s. Related: Chucked; chucking.

chuck (n.1)

"piece of wood," 1670s; "piece of meat," 1723; probably a variant of chock (n.) "block." "Chock and chuck appear to have been originally variants of the same word, which are now somewhat differentiated" [OED].

Chock and Chuck, Are low terms, very frequently used before full,--as the coach was chock full of passengers. The house was chuck full. [Daniel Powers, "A Grammar on an Entirely New System," West Brookfield, 1845]

Specifically of shoulder meat from early 18c. (the exact cut varies from place to place). Meaning "device for holding work in a lathe or other machine" is from 1703 (also chock). American English chuck wagon (1880) is from a mid-19c. meaning "food, grub," generalized from the meat sense.

chuck (n.2)

"slight blow under the chin," 1610s, from chuck (v.1). Meaning "a toss, a throw" is from 1862.

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Definitions of chuck from WordNet
1
chuck (v.)
throw carelessly;
chuck the ball
Synonyms: toss
chuck (v.)
throw away;
Synonyms: ditch
chuck (v.)
pat or squeeze fondly or playfully, especially under the chin;
Synonyms: pat
chuck (v.)
eject the contents of the stomach through the mouth;
Synonyms: vomit / vomit up / purge / cast / sick / cat / be sick / disgorge / regorge / retch / puke / barf / spew / spue / upchuck / honk / regurgitate / throw up
2
chuck (n.)
informal terms for a meal;
Synonyms: chow / eats / grub
chuck (n.)
the part of a forequarter from the neck to the ribs and including the shoulder blade;
chuck (n.)
a holding device consisting of adjustable jaws that center a workpiece in a lathe or center a tool in a drill;
From wordnet.princeton.edu