Etymology
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Words related to chalk

calcareous (adj.)

also calcarious, "of the nature of lime, containing lime, chalky," 1670s, from Latin calcarius "of lime, pertaining to lime," from calx (genitive calcis) "lime, limestone" (see chalk (n.)).

The spelling in -eous, which appeared about 1790, is erroneous, influenced by words in -eous from Latin -eus. The etymological sense of calcar-eous would be 'of the nature of a spur.' [OED]
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calcify (v.)
"become hardened like bone," 1785 (implied in calcified), from French calcifier, from stem of Latin calcem "lime" (see chalk (n.)) + -fy. Related: Calcifying; calcification.
calcite (n.)
crystalline calcium carbonate, 1849, from German Calcit, coined by Austrian mineralogist Wilhelm Karl von Hardinger (1795-1871) from Latin calx (genitive calcis) "lime" (see chalk (n.)) + mineral suffix -ite (2) (German -it).
calcium (n.)

metallic element, coined 1808 by English chemist Sir Humphry Davy, who first succeeded in isolating it, from Latin calx (genitive calcis) "limestone" (see chalk (n.)) + metallic element ending -ium. Related: Calcic.

calculation (n.)

late 14c., "art, manner, or practice of computing by numbers," also "the process of making a horoscope," from Late Latin calculationem (nominative calculatio) "a computation, calculation, reckoning," noun of action from past-participle stem of calculare "to reckon, compute," from Latin calculus "reckoning, account," originally "pebble used in counting," diminutive of calx (genitive calcis) "limestone" (see chalk (n.)). From early 15c. as "the result of reckoning, the solution for a problem."

calculous (adj.)
c. 1600, "of or pertaining to a bodily concretion;" 1670s, "stony, stone-like;" from Latin calculosus and (in the medical sense) directly from calculus "a pebble," diminutive of calx (genitive calcis) "limestone" (see chalk (n.)).
calculus (n.)
mathematical method of treating problems by the use of a system of algebraic notation, 1660s, from Latin calculus "reckoning, account," originally "pebble used as a reckoning counter," diminutive of calx (genitive calcis) "limestone" (see chalk (n.)). Modern mathematical sense is a shortening of differential calculus.

In medicine, the word also has been used from 1732 to mean kidney stones, etc., then generally for "concretion occurring accidentally in the animal body," such as dental plaque.
caliche (n.)
sodium nitrate deposits in Chile and Peru, 1858, from South American Spanish, from Spanish caliche "pebble accidentally enclosed in a brick; flake of lime," from Latin calx "limestone, pebble" (see chalk (n.)).
caulk (v.)

late 14c., "to stop up crevices or cracks," from Old North French cauquer, from Late Latin calicare "to stop up chinks with lime," from Latin calx (2) "lime, limestone" (see chalk (n.)). Original sense is nautical, in reference to making ships watertight by driving oakum into the seams. Related: Caulked; caulking. As a noun, "caulking material," by 1980 (caulking in this sense was used from 1743). Related: Caulker.

chalkboard (n.)

also chalk-board, "board meant to be written on with chalk," 1816, from chalk (n.) + board (n.1).