Words related to chalk
also calcarious, "of the nature of lime, containing lime, chalky," 1670s, from Latin calcarius "of lime, pertaining to lime," from calx (genitive calcis) "lime, limestone" (see chalk (n.)).
The spelling in -eous, which appeared about 1790, is erroneous, influenced by words in -eous from Latin -eus. The etymological sense of calcar-eous would be 'of the nature of a spur.' [OED]
late 14c., "art, manner, or practice of computing by numbers," also "the process of making a horoscope," from Late Latin calculationem (nominative calculatio) "a computation, calculation, reckoning," noun of action from past-participle stem of calculare "to reckon, compute," from Latin calculus "reckoning, account," originally "pebble used in counting," diminutive of calx (genitive calcis) "limestone" (see chalk (n.)). From early 15c. as "the result of reckoning, the solution for a problem."
In medicine, the word also has been used from 1732 to mean kidney stones, etc., then generally for "concretion occurring accidentally in the animal body," such as dental plaque.
late 14c., "to stop up crevices or cracks," from Old North French cauquer, from Late Latin calicare "to stop up chinks with lime," from Latin calx (2) "lime, limestone" (see chalk (n.)). Original sense is nautical, in reference to making ships watertight by driving oakum into the seams. Related: Caulked; caulking. As a noun, "caulking material," by 1980 (caulking in this sense was used from 1743). Related: Caulker.