Etymology
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chair (n.)

"a seat with a back, intended for one person," early 13c., chaere, from Old French chaiere "chair, seat, throne" (12c.; Modern French chaire "pulpit, throne;" the more modest sense having gone since 16c. with variant form chaise), from Latin cathedra "seat" (see cathedral).

Figurative sense of "seat of office or authority" c. 1300 originally was of bishops and professors. Meaning "office of a professor" (1816) is extended from the seat from which a professor lectures (mid-15c.). Meaning "seat of a person presiding at meeting" is from 1640s. As short for electric chair from 1900. Chair-rail "strip or board of wood fastened to a wall at such a height as to prevent the plaster from being scraped by the backs of chairs" is from 1822.

chair (v.)

mid-15c., "install in a chair or seat" (implied in chairing), from chair (n.); meaning "preside over" (a meeting, etc.) is attested by 1921. Related: Chaired.

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Definitions of chair
1
chair (n.)
a seat for one person, with a support for the back;
he put his coat over the back of the chair and sat down
chair (n.)
the position of professor;
he was awarded an endowed chair in economics
Synonyms: professorship
chair (n.)
the officer who presides at the meetings of an organization;
chair (n.)
an instrument of execution by electrocution; resembles an ordinary seat for one person;
the murderer was sentenced to die in the chair
Synonyms: electric chair / death chair / hot seat
chair (n.)
a particular seat in an orchestra;
he is second chair violin
2
chair (v.)
act or preside as chair, as of an academic department in a university;
She chaired the department for many years
Synonyms: chairman
chair (v.)
preside over;
Synonyms: moderate / lead
From wordnet.princeton.edu