Etymology
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Words related to castle

*kes- 
Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to cut."

It forms all or part of: caret; cashier (v.) "dismiss;" cassation; caste; castellan; castellated; Castile; castle; castigate; castrate; castration; chaste; chastity; chateau; chatelaine; Chester; forecastle; incest; quash (v.) "make void, annul."

It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit sastra- "knife, dagger;" Greek keazein "to split;" Latin carere "to be cut off from," cassus "empty, void;" Old Church Slavonic kosa "scythe."
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castellan (n.)

also castellain, "a governor of a castle," late 14c., from Old North French castelain,Old French chastelain "owner and lord of a castle, nobleman; keeper of a castle" (Modern French châtelaine),from chastel"castle," from Latin castellum "castle" (see castle (n.)). Related: Castellany"jurisdiction of a castellan."

castellated (adj.)

"furnished with turrets and battlements," 1670s, from Medieval Latin castellatus "built like a castle," past participle of castellare "to fortify as a castle, build as a castle, furnish with turrets and battlements," from Latin castellum "castle, fort, citadel, stronghold" (see castle (n.)). Related: Castellation.

Castile 

medieval Spanish county and later kingdom, from Vulgar Latin *castilla, from Latin castella, plural of castellum "castle, fort, citadel, stronghold" (see castle (n.)); so called in reference to the many fortified places there during the Moorish wars. The name in Spanish is said to date back to c.800. Related: Castilian. As a fine kind of soap, in English from 1610s.

chateau (n.)

"large stately residence in the country, manor-house," c. 1739, from French château, from Old French chastel (12c.), from Latin castellum "castle" (see castle (n.)).

chatelaine (n.)

1845, "mistress of a castle or household," from French châtelaine "a female castellan; wife of a castellan; mistress of a castle or country house;" fem. of châtelain, from Old French chastelain "owner and lord of a castle, nobleman; keeper of a castle" (Modern French châtelaine), from chastel "castle," from Latin castellum "castle" (see castle (n.)). In fashion, as a type of ornamental belt, from 1851; it is supposed to resemble a chain of keys such as a chatelaine would wear.

Chester 

Cestre (1086), from Old English Legacæstir (735) "City of the Legions," from Old English ceaster "Roman town or city," from Latin castrum "fortified place" (see castle (n.)). A post-Roman name; the place was the base of the Second Legion Adiutrix in the 70s C.E. and later the 20th Legion Valeria Victrix, but the town's name in Roman times was Deoua (c. 150 C.E.), from its situation on the River Dee, a Celtic river name meaning "the goddess, the holy one."

forecastle (n.)
c. 1400 (mid-14c. as Anglo-French forechasteil), "short raised deck in the fore part of the ship used in warfare," from Middle English fore- "before" + Anglo-French castel "fortified tower" (see castle (n.)). In broader reference to the part of a vessel forward of the fore rigging, late 15c.; hence, generally, "section of a ship where the sailors live" (by 1840). Spelling fo'c'sle reflects sailors' pronunciation. If at the aft part of a ship, it was an afcastle.
Luxor 
place in Egypt, from a misdivision of Arabic al-uqsur, plural of al-qasr, which is from an Arabicized form of Latin castrum "fortified camp" (see castle (n.)). Remains of Roman camps are nearby.
sand-castle (n.)

"sand piled up and shaped to resemble a little castle," such as children make at the beach, 1838, from sand (n.) + castle (n.). Also figurative of impermanence.