Etymology
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Words related to carbon

*ker- (3)

Proto-Indo-European root meaning "heat, fire."

It forms all or part of: carbon; carboniferous; carbuncle; cremate; cremation; hearth.

It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit kudayati "singes;" Latin carbo "a coal, glowing coal; charcoal," cremare "to burn;" Lithuanian kuriu, kurti "to heat," karštas "hot," krosnis "oven;" Old Church Slavonic kurjo "to smoke," krada "fireplace, hearth;" Russian ceren "brazier;" Old High German harsta "roasting;" Gothic hauri "coal;" Old Norse hyrr "fire;" Old English heorð "hearth."

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boron (n.)

non-metallic chemical element, 1812, from borax + ending abstracted unetymologically from carbon (its properties somewhat resemble those of carbon). Originally called boracium by Humphry Davy because it was drawn from boracic acid. Related: Boric.

carbide (n.)
compound formed by combination of carbon and another element, 1848, from carb-, combining form of carbon + chemical suffix -ide. The earlier word was carburet.
carbo- 
before vowels carb-, word-forming element meaning "carbon," abstracted 1810 from carbon.
carbolic (adj.)
"pertaining to or derived from carbon or coal," 1836, from carb-, combining form of carbon + -ol "oil" + -ic.
carbon dioxide (n.)
1869, so called because it consists of one carbon and two oxygen atoms. The chemical was known since mid-18c. under the name fixed air; later as carbonic acid gas (1791). "The term dioxide for an oxide containing two atoms of oxygen came into use in the middle of the 19th century." [Flood].
carbon monoxide (n.)
1869, so called because it consists of one carbon and one oxygen atom (as opposed to carbon dioxide, which has two of the latter). An older name for it was carbonic oxide gas.
carbonaceous (adj.)
1791, "pertaining to or consisting of charcoal or coal;" 1794, "pertaining to or consisting of carbon;" see carbon + -aceous.
carbonate (n.)
"compound formed by the union of carbonic acid with a base," 1794, from French carbonate "salt of carbonic acid" (Lavoisier), from Modern Latin carbonatem "a carbonated (substance)," from Latin carbo (see carbon).
carbon-copy (n.)
1895, from carbon (paper) + copy (n.). A copy on paper made using carbon-paper (paper faced with carbon, used between two sheets for reproduction on the lower of what is drawn or written on the upper). The figurative sense is from 1944. Also as a verb, "send a carbon copy (of something)," and as such often abbreviated c.c.