Etymology
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captain (n.)

late 14c., capitayn, "a leader, chief, one who stands at the head of others," from Old French capitaine "captain, leader," from Late Latin capitaneus "chief," noun use of adjective capitaneus "prominent, chief," from Latin caput (genitive capitis) "head" (from PIE root *kaput- "head").

Military sense of "officer who commands a company" (rank between major and lieutenant) is from 1560s; naval sense of "officer who commands a man-of-war" is from 1550s, extended to "master or commander of a vessel of any kind" by 1704. Sporting sense "leader of the players on a team" is recorded by 1823. The other Germanic words also are from French.

captain (v.)

"act as leader to, command," 1590s, from captain (n.). Related: Captained; captaining.

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Definitions of captain
1
captain (n.)
an officer holding a rank below a major but above a lieutenant;
captain (n.)
the naval officer in command of a military ship;
Synonyms: skipper
captain (n.)
a policeman in charge of a precinct;
Synonyms: police captain / police chief
captain (n.)
an officer who is licensed to command a merchant ship;
Synonyms: master / sea captain / skipper
captain (n.)
the leader of a group of people;
a captain of industry
Synonyms: chieftain
captain (n.)
the pilot in charge of an airship;
Synonyms: senior pilot
captain (n.)
a dining-room attendant who is in charge of the waiters and the seating of customers;
Synonyms: headwaiter / maitre d'hotel / maitre d'
2
captain (v.)
be the captain of a sports team;
From wordnet.princeton.edu