Etymology
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caliper (n.)

"instrument for measuring diameters," 1620s, short for calliper compass (1580s), a device used to measure calibers, from a corrupt form of caliber (q.v.). Usually in the plural, calipers.

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Definitions of caliper
1
caliper (v.)
measure the diameter of something with calipers;
Synonyms: calliper
2
caliper (n.)
an instrument for measuring the distance between two points (often used in the plural);
Synonyms: calliper
From wordnet.princeton.edu