Etymology
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calculus (n.)

mathematical method of treating problems by the use of a system of algebraic notation, 1660s, from Latin calculus "reckoning, account," originally "pebble used as a reckoning counter," diminutive of calx (genitive calcis) "limestone" (see chalk (n.)). Modern mathematical sense is a shortening of differential calculus.

In medicine, the word also has been used from 1732 to mean kidney stones, etc., then generally for "concretion occurring accidentally in the animal body," such as dental plaque.

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Definitions of calculus

calculus (n.)
a hard lump produced by the concretion of mineral salts; found in hollow organs or ducts of the body;
renal calculi can be very painful
Synonyms: concretion
calculus (n.)
an incrustation that forms on the teeth and gums;
Synonyms: tartar / tophus
calculus (n.)
the branch of mathematics that is concerned with limits and with the differentiation and integration of functions;
Synonyms: infinitesimal calculus
From wordnet.princeton.edu