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cable (n.)

c. 1200, "large, strong rope or chain used on a ship," from Old North French cable, from Medieval Latin capulum "lasso, rope, halter for cattle," from Latin capere "to take, seize," from PIE root *kap- "to grasp."

Technically, in nautical use, a rope 10 or more inches around, to hold the ship when at anchor; in non-nautical use, a rope of wire (not hemp or fiber). Given a new range of senses in 19c. in telegraphy (1850s), traction-railroads (1880s), etc. Meaning "message received by telegraphic cable" is from 1883, short for cable message (1870), cablegram (1868), cable dispatch (1864). Cable television first attested 1963; shortened form cable in this sense is from 1970.

Speed, speed the Cable; let it run,
   A loving girdle round the earth,
Till all the nations 'neath the sun
   Shall be as brothers at one hearth;

[T. Buchanan Read, "The Cable," 1858]

cable (v.)

c. 1500, "to tie up with cables," from cable (n.). As "to transmit by telegraph cable," 1868. Related: Cabled; cabling.

We have done our part lately to bring into use the verb cabled, as applied to a message over the Atlantic cable. It is proper to say "it has been cabled," instead of "it has been telegraphed over the Atlantic cable." ["The Mechanics Magazine," London, Sept. 11, 1868]

But other British sources list it as an Americanism.

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Definitions of cable from WordNet
1
cable (n.)
a telegram sent abroad;
Synonyms: cablegram / overseas telegram
cable (n.)
a conductor for transmitting electrical or optical signals or electric power;
Synonyms: line / transmission line
cable (n.)
a very strong thick rope made of twisted hemp or steel wire;
cable (n.)
a nautical unit of depth;
Synonyms: cable length / cable's length
cable (n.)
television that is transmitted over cable directly to the receiver;
Synonyms: cable television
cable (n.)
a television system that transmits over cables;
Synonyms: cable television / cable system / cable television service
2
cable (v.)
send cables, wires, or telegrams;
Synonyms: telegraph / wire
cable (v.)
fasten with a cable;
cable trees
From wordnet.princeton.edu