Etymology
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burst (v.)

Old English berstan (intransitive) "break suddenly, shatter as a result of pressure from within" (class III strong verb; past tense bærst, past participle borsten), from a West Germanic metathesis of Proto-Germanic *brest- (source also of Old Saxon brestan, Old Frisian bersta, Middle Dutch berstan, Low German barsten, Dutch barsten, Old High German brestan, German bersten "to burst").

The forms reverted to brest- in Middle English from influence of Old Norse brestan/brast/brosten, from the same Germanic root, but it was re-metathesized late 16c. and emerged in the modern form, though brast was common as past tense through 17c. and survives in dialect.

In Old English "Chiefly said of things possessing considerable capacity for resistance and breaking with loud noise; often of cords, etc., snapping under tension; also of spears, swords, etc., shivered in battle" [OED]; in late Old English also "break violently open as an effect of internal forces." Figuratively, in reference to being over-full of excitement, anticipation, emotion, etc., from c. 1200. Transitive sense ("to cause to break, cause to explode") is from late 13c. Meaning "to issue suddenly and abundantly" is from c. 1300 (literal), mid-13c. (figurative). Meaning "break (into) sudden activity or expression" is from late 14c. Related: Bursting.

burst (n.)

1610s, "act of bursting, a violent rending; a sudden issuing forth," from burst (v.). Meaning "a spurt, an outburst" (of activity, etc.) is from 1862. Jane Austen, Coleridge, Browning use it in a sense of "a sudden opening to sight or view." The earlier noun berst (early Middle English) meant "damage, injury, harm."

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Definitions of burst
1
burst (v.)
come open suddenly and violently, as if from internal pressure;
The bubble burst
Synonyms: split / break open
burst (v.)
force out or release suddenly and often violently something pent up;
Synonyms: break / erupt
burst (v.)
burst outward, usually with noise;
Synonyms: explode
burst (v.)
move suddenly, energetically, or violently;
He burst out of the house into the cool night
burst (v.)
be in a state of movement or action;
Synonyms: abound / bristle
burst (v.)
emerge suddenly;
The sun burst into view
burst (v.)
cause to burst;
Synonyms: collapse
burst (v.)
break open or apart suddenly and forcefully;
The dam burst
Synonyms: bust
2
burst (n.)
the act of exploding or bursting;
the burst of an atom bomb creates enormous radiation aloft
Synonyms: explosion
burst (n.)
rapid simultaneous discharge of firearms;
Synonyms: fusillade / salvo / volley
burst (n.)
a sudden flurry of activity (often for no obvious reason);
a burst of applause
Synonyms: fit
burst (n.)
a sudden intense happening;
a burst of lightning
Synonyms: outburst / flare-up
From wordnet.princeton.edu