Etymology
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bolt (n.)

Old English bolt "short, stout arrow with a heavy head;" also "crossbow for throwing bolts," from Proto-Germanic *bultas (source also of Old Norse bolti, Danish bolt, Dutch bout, German Bolzen), perhaps originally "arrow, missile," and from PIE *bheld- "to knock, strike" (source also of Lithuanian beldžiu "I knock," baldas "pole for striking").

Applied since Middle English to other short metal rods (especially those with knobbed ends): meanings "stout pin for fastening objects together" and "part of a lock which springs out" are both from c. 1400. A bolt of canvas (c. 1400) was so called for its shape. Adverbial phrase bolt upright (like a bolt or arrow) is from late 14c. Meaning "sliding metal rod that thrusts the cartridge into the chamber of a firearm" is from 1859. From the notion of an arrow's flight comes the bolt of lightning (1530s) and the sense of "a sudden spring or start" (1540s).

bolt (v.)

from bolt (n.) in its various senses (especially "a missile" and "a fastening"); from a crossbow arrow's quick flight comes the meaning "to spring, to make a quick start" (early 13c.). Via the notion of fleeing game or runaway horses, this came to mean "to leave suddenly" (1610s). Meaning "to gulp down food" is from 1794. The meaning "to secure by means of a bolt" is from 1580s. Related: Bolted; bolting.

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Definitions of bolt
1
bolt (v.)
move or jump suddenly;
She bolted from her seat
bolt (v.)
secure or lock with a bolt;
bolt the door
bolt (v.)
swallow hastily;
bolt (v.)
run away; usually includes taking something or somebody along;
Synonyms: abscond / absquatulate / decamp / run off / go off / make off
bolt (v.)
leave suddenly and as if in a hurry;
The listeners bolted when he discussed his strange ideas
Synonyms: run off / run out / bolt out / beetle off
bolt (v.)
eat hastily without proper chewing;
Don't bolt your food!
Synonyms: gobble
bolt (v.)
make or roll into bolts;
bolt fabric
2
bolt (n.)
a discharge of lightning accompanied by thunder;
Synonyms: thunderbolt / bolt of lightning
bolt (n.)
a sliding bar in a breech-loading firearm that ejects an empty cartridge and replaces it and closes the breech;
bolt (n.)
the part of a lock that is engaged or withdrawn with a key;
Synonyms: deadbolt
bolt (n.)
the act of moving with great haste;
Synonyms: dash
bolt (n.)
a roll of cloth or wallpaper of a definite length;
bolt (n.)
a screw that screws into a nut to form a fastener;
bolt (n.)
a sudden abandonment (as from a political party);
3
bolt (adv.)
in a rigid manner;
he sat bolt upright
Synonyms: rigidly / stiffly
bolt (adv.)
directly;
Synonyms: bang / slap / slapdash / smack
From wordnet.princeton.edu