Etymology
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blow up (v.)

1590s, "explode;" 1690s "cause to explode;" from blow (v.1) + up (adv.). From 1670s as "inflate, puff up." Figurative sense "lose one's temper" is from 1871.

As a noun, it is recorded from 1809 in the sense "outburst, quarrel;" 1807 as "an explosion." Meaning "enlargement from a photograph" is attested by 1945 (the verbal phrase in this sense is by 1930). Old English had an adjective upablawan "upblown," used of a volcano, etc.

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Definitions of blow up

blow up (v.)
cause to burst with a violent release of energy;
Synonyms: explode / detonate / set off
blow up (v.)
make large;
blow up an image
Synonyms: enlarge / magnify
blow up (v.)
get very angry and fly into a rage;
Synonyms: flip one's lid / throw a fit / hit the roof / hit the ceiling / have kittens / have a fit / combust / blow one's stack / fly off the handle / flip one's wig / lose one's temper / blow a fuse / go ballistic
blow up (v.)
add details to;
Synonyms: embroider / pad / lard / embellish / aggrandize / aggrandise / dramatize / dramatise
blow up (v.)
burst and release energy as through a violent chemical or physical reaction;
Synonyms: detonate / explode
blow up (v.)
exaggerate or make bigger;
Synonyms: inflate / expand / amplify
blow up (v.)
fill with gas or air;
Synonyms: inflate
blow up (v.)
to swell or cause to enlarge;
Synonyms: puff / puff up / puff out
From wordnet.princeton.edu