Etymology
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Words related to belly

*bhel- (2)
Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to blow, swell," "with derivatives referring to various round objects and to the notion of tumescent masculinity" [Watkins].

It forms all or part of: bale (n.) "large bundle or package of merchandise prepared for transportation;" baleen; ball (n.1) "round object, compact spherical body;" balloon; ballot; bawd; bold; bole; boll; bollocks; bollix; boulder; boulevard; bowl (n.) "round pot or cup;" bulk; bull (n.1) "bovine male animal;" bullock; bulwark; follicle; folly; fool; foosball; full (v.) "to tread or beat cloth to cleanse or thicken it;" ithyphallic; pall-mall; phallus.

It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Greek phyllon "leaf," phallos "swollen penis;" Latin flos "flower," florere "to blossom, flourish," folium "leaf;" Old Prussian balsinis "cushion;" Old Norse belgr "bag, bellows;" Old English bolla "pot, cup, bowl;" Old Irish bolgaim "I swell," blath "blossom, flower," bolach "pimple," bolg "bag;" Breton bolc'h "flax pod;" Serbian buljiti "to stare, be bug-eyed;" Serbo-Croatian blazina "pillow."

An extended form of the root, *bhelgh- "to swell," forms all or part of: bellows; belly; bilge; billow; bolster; budget; bulge; Excalibur; Firbolgs.

An extended form of the root, *bhleu- "to swell, well up, overflow," forms all or part of: affluent; bloat; confluence; effluent; effluvium; efflux; fluctuate; fluent; fluid; flume; fluor; fluorescence; fluoride; fluoro-; flush (v.1) "spurt, rush out suddenly, flow with force;" fluvial; flux; influence; influenza; influx; mellifluous; phloem; reflux; superfluous.
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bellows (n.)
"instrument for producing a current of air," especially for a fire, c. 1200, belwes, literally "bags," plural of belu, belw, northern form of beli, from late Old English belg "pair of bellows; bag, purse, leathern bottle," from PIE *bhelgh- "to swell," extended form of root *bhel- (2) "to blow, swell."

Essentially the same word as belly (n.) and retaining its original sense. It is attested earlier in the specific term blæstbælg, literally "blowing bag," and the modern word is perhaps a reduction of this (compare Old Norse blastrbelgr, German Blasebalg). Used exclusively in plural since 15c., probably due to the two handles or halves.
gastric (adj.)
1650s, from Modern Latin gastricus, from Greek gaster (genitive gastros) "stomach, paunch, belly," often figurative of gluttony or greed, also "womb, uterus; sausage," by dissimilation from *graster, literally "eater, devourer," from gran "to gnaw, eat," from PIE root *gras- "to devour" (source also of Greek grastis "green fodder," Latin gramen "fodder, grass," Old English cærse "cress").
stomach (n.)

late 14c. variant of earlier stomake (early 14c.), "internal pouch into which food is digested," from Old French stomaque, estomac "stomach," from Latin stomachus "throat, gullet; stomach," also "taste, inclination, liking; distaste, dislike;" also "pride, indignation," which were thought to have their origin in that organ (source also of Spanish estómago, Italian stomaco), from Greek stomachos "throat, gullet, esophagus," literally "mouth, opening," from stoma "mouth" (see stoma).

Applied anciently to the openings of various internal organs, especially that of the stomach, then by the later Greek physicians to the stomach itself. The native word is maw (Old English maga glosses stomachus).

Some 16c. anatomists tried to correct the sense back to "esophagus" and introduce ventricle for what we call the stomach. Meaning "belly, midriff, part of the body that contains the stomach" is from late 14c.

In Middle English also stomack, stomac, stommak, stomoke; the spelling of the ending of the word was conformed to Latin regularly from 16c., but the pronunciation remains as in Middle English. Related: stomachial (1580s); stomachical (c. 1600); stomachic (1650s). Pugilistic stomacher "punch in the stomach" is from 1814; from mid-15c. as "vest or other garment which covers the belly." The Latin figurative senses also were in Middle English (such as "relish, inclination, desire," mid-15c.) or early Modern English. Also sometimes regarded in Middle Ages as the seat of sexual desire.

abdomen (n.)
Origin and meaning of abdomen

1540s, "flesh or meat of the belly" (a sense now obsolete), from Latin abdomen "the belly," a word of unknown origin, Perhaps [OED, Watkins] from abdere "conceal" (from ab "off, away" + PIE root *dhe- "to set, put"), with a sense of "concealment of the viscera," or else "what is concealed" by proper dress. De Vaan, however, finds this derivation "unfounded." Anatomical sense of "part of the mammalian body between the diaphragm and the pelvis" is from 1610s. Zoological sense of "posterior division of the bodies of arthropods" is by 1725.

tummy (n.)
1867, infantile for stomach. Tummy-ache is attested from 1874.
midriff (n.)

Old English midhrif "diaphragm of a human or animal," from mid "mid" (from PIE root *medhyo- "middle") + hrif "belly," from Proto-Germanic *hrefin (source also of Old High German href, Old Frisian hrif, -rith, -rede "belly"). Compare Old Frisian midrede "diaphragm." Watkins has this from PIE root *kwrep- "body, form, appearance;" Boutkan has it from *sker- (1) "to cut."

More or less obsolete after 18c. except in phrase to tickle (one's) midriff "to cause laughter;" the word revived 1941 in fashion usage for "portion of a woman's garment that covers the belly," as a euphemistic avoidance of belly; sense inverted and extended 1970 to a belly-baring style of women's top.

bellied (adj.)
having a swelling or hollow middle, late 15c., from belly (n.). From 1590s as "puffed out." Also, since 16c., in compounds, "having a belly" (of a certain kind).
belly-ache (n.)
also bellyache, 1590s, "pain in the bowels," from belly (n.) + ache (n.). The verb in the slang sense of "complain" is first recorded 1888, American English; it appears not to have been used earlier than that, if ever, in a literal sense. Related: bellyached; bellyaching.
belly-button (n.)
also bellybutton, "navel," 1877, colloquial, from belly (n.) + button (n.).