Etymology
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Words related to beat

*bhau- 
Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to strike."

It forms all or part of: abut; baste (v.3) "beat with a stick, thrash;" battledore; beat; beetle (n.2) "heavy wooden mallet;" botony; boutonniere; butt (n.1) "thick end;" butt (v.) "strike with the head;" buttocks; button; buttress; confute; halibut; rebut; refute; sackbut; turbot.

It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Latin *futare "to beat" (in compounds); Old English beadu "battle," beatan "to beat," bytl "hammer, mallet."
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beatnik (n.)

coined 1958 by San Francisco newspaper columnist Herb Caen during the heyday of -nik suffixes in the wake of Sputnik. From Beat generation (1952), associated with beat (n.) in its meaning "rhythm (especially in jazz)" as well as beat (adj.) "worn out, exhausted," and Century Dictionary (1902) has slang beat (n.) "a worthless, dishonest, shiftless fellow." Originator Jack Kerouac in 1958 connected it with beatitude.

The origins of the word beat are obscure, but the meaning is only too clear to most Americans. More than the feeling of weariness, it implies the feeling of having been used, of being raw. It involves a sort of nakedness of the mind. [New York Times Magazine, Oct. 2, 1952]
"Beat" is old carny slang. According to Beat Movement legend (and it is a movement with a deep inventory of legend), Ginsberg and Kerouac picked it up from a character named Herbert Huncke, a gay street hustler and drug addict from Chicago who began hanging around Times Square in 1939 (and who introduced William Burroughs to heroin, an important cultural moment). The term has nothing to do with music; it names the condition of being beaten down, poor, exhausted, at the bottom of the world. [Louis Menand, New Yorker, Oct. 1, 2007]
back-beat (n.)
1928, in jazz, from back (adj.) + beat (n.).
heart-beat (n.)
also heartbeat, 1850, "a pulsation of the heart," from heart (n.) + beat (n.). From its coinage used as a figure for "a very brief time."
hoofbeat (n.)
also hoof-beat, 1821, from hoof (n.) + beat (n.).
offbeat (adj.)

also off-beat, "unusual," 1938, from off (adv.) + beat (n.). From earlier sense in reference to the second and fourth beats in a four-beat music rhythm (1927), where the stress typically fell on the first and third. Compare upbeat.

upbeat (adj.)

"with a positive mood," 1947, apparently from on the upbeat "improving, getting better," attested from 1934 and a favorite of Billboard magazine headline-writers in the early 1940s, from the musical noun upbeat (1869), referring to the beat of a bar at which the conductor's baton is in a raised position; from up (adv.) + beat (n.). The "optimistic" sense apparently for no other reason than that it sounds like a happy word (the musical upbeat is no more inherently "positive" than any other beat).

beat off (v.)
"drive (something) away by violent blows," 1640s, from beat (v.) + off (adv.). Meaning "masturbate" is recorded by 1960s.
beat up (v.)
"thrash, strike repeatedly," c. 1900 (v.), from beat (v.) + up (adv.). Earlier it meant "summon (recruits, etc.) by the beating of a drum" (1690s). Beat-up as an adjectival phrase meaning "worn-out" dates to 1946.
beatable (adj.)
1610s, from beat (v.) + -able.