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band (n.1)

"a flat strip," also "something that binds," Middle English bende, from Old English bend "bond, fetter, shackle, chain, that by which someone or something is bound; ribbon, ornament, chaplet, crown," with later senses and spelling from cognate Old Norse band and technical senses from Old French bande "strip, edge, side" (12c., Old North French bende), all three ultimately from Proto-Germanic *bindan, from PIE root *bhendh- "to bind."

The meaning "a flat strip" (late 14c.) is from French. In Middle English, this was sometimes distinguished by the spelling bande, bonde, but with loss of terminal -e the words have fully merged via the notion of "flat strip of flexible material used to wind around something."

Meaning "broad stripe of color, ray of colored light" is from late 14c.; the electronics sense of "range of frequencies or wavelengths" is from 1922. Most of the figurative senses ("legal or moral commitment; captivity, imprisonment," etc.) have passed into bond (n.), which originally was a phonetic variant of this band. The Middle English form of the word is retained in heraldic bend (n.2) "broad diagonal stripe on a coat-of-arms."

band (n.2)

"an organized group," originally especially of armed men, late 15c., from French bande, which is traceable to the Proto-Germanic root of band (n.1), perhaps via a band of cloth worn as a mark of identification by a group of soldiers or others (compare Gothic bandwa "a sign"). But perhaps from Middle English band, bond in the sense "force that unites, bond, tie" (late 14c.). Also compare Old Norse band "cord that binds; act of binding," also "confederacy."

The extension to "group of musicians" is c. 1660, originally musicians attached to a regiment of the army and playing instruments which may be used while marching. To beat the band (1897) is to make enough noise to drown it out, hence to exceed everything. One-man band is by 1931 as "man who plays several musical instruments simultaneously;" figurative extension is by 1938.

band (v.)

1520s, "to bind or fasten;" also "to join in a company," from band (n.1) and (n.2) in various senses, and partly from French bander "to bind," from bande "a strip." The meaning "affix an ID band to (a wild animal, etc.)" is attested from 1914. Related: Banded; banding.

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Definitions of band from WordNet
1
band (n.)
an unofficial association of people or groups;
Synonyms: set / circle / lot
band (n.)
instrumentalists not including string players;
band (n.)
a stripe or stripes of contrasting color;
chromosomes exhibit characteristic bands
the black and yellow banding of bees and wasps
Synonyms: banding / stria / striation
band (n.)
an adornment consisting of a strip of a contrasting color or material;
Synonyms: banding / stripe
band (n.)
a group of musicians playing popular music for dancing;
Synonyms: dance band / dance orchestra
band (n.)
a range of frequencies between two limits;
band (n.)
a thin flat strip of flexible material that is worn around the body or one of the limbs (especially to decorate the body);
band (n.)
a cord-like tissue connecting two larger parts of an anatomical structure;
Synonyms: isthmus
band (n.)
jewelry consisting of a circlet of precious metal (often set with jewels) worn on the finger;
he noted that she wore a wedding band
Synonyms: ring
band (n.)
a driving belt in machinery;
band (n.)
a thin flat strip or loop of flexible material that goes around or over something else, typically to hold it together or as a decoration;
band (n.)
a strip of material attached to the leg of a bird to identify it (as in studies of bird migration);
Synonyms: ring
band (n.)
a restraint put around something to hold it together;
2
band (v.)
bind or tie together, as with a band;
band (v.)
attach a ring to the foot of, in order to identify;
band the geese to observe their migratory patterns
Synonyms: ring
From wordnet.princeton.edu