Etymology
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atmosphere (n.)

1630s, atmosphaera (modern form from 1670s), "gaseous envelop surrounding the earth," from Modern Latin atmosphaera, from Greek atmos "vapor, steam" (see atmo-) + sphaira "sphere" (see sphere). In old science, "vaporous air," which was considered a part of the earth and a contamination of the lower part of the air (n.1).

Þe ouer partye of þe eyr is pure and clene, clere, esy & softe, ffor mevynge of stormys, of wynde and of wedir may nat reche þerto; and so it perteyneþ to heuenlych kynde. And þe neþir partye is nyʒe to þe spere of watir and of erþe, and is troubly, greet and þicke, corpulent and ful of moyst erþy vapoures, as longiþ to erþy partyes. Þe eyr strecchiþ hym kyndely al aboute fro þe ouer partye of þe erþe and of watir anon to þe spere of fire. [Bartholomew Glanville, "De proprietatibus rerum," c. 1240, translated by John of Trevisa c. 1398 ]

First used in English in connection with the Moon, which, as it turns out, practically has none.

'Tis Observed, in the Solary Eclipses, that there is some times a great Trepidation about the Body of the Moon, from which we may likewise argue an Atmo-sphaera, since we cannot well conceive what so probable a cause there should be of such an appearance as this, Quod radii Solares a vaporibus Lunam ambientibus fuerint intercisi, that the Sun-beams were broken and refracted by the Vapours that encompassed the Moon. [Rev. John Wilkins, "Discovery of New World or Discourse tending to prove that it probable there may be another World in the Moon," 1638]

Figurative sense of "surrounding influence, mental or moral environment" is c. 1800.

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Definitions of atmosphere

atmosphere (n.)
a particular environment or surrounding influence;
there was an atmosphere of excitement
Synonyms: ambiance / ambience
atmosphere (n.)
a unit of pressure: the pressure that will support a column of mercury 760 mm high at sea level and 0 degrees centigrade;
Synonyms: standard atmosphere / atm / standard pressure
atmosphere (n.)
the mass of air surrounding the Earth;
there was great heat as the comet entered the atmosphere
Synonyms: air
atmosphere (n.)
the weather or climate at some place;
the atmosphere was thick with fog
Synonyms: atmospheric state
atmosphere (n.)
the envelope of gases surrounding any celestial body;
atmosphere (n.)
a distinctive but intangible quality surrounding a person or thing;
an atmosphere of defeat pervaded the candidate's headquarters
Synonyms: air / aura
From wordnet.princeton.edu

Dictionary entries near atmosphere

atlas

atlatl

ATM

atman

atmo-

atmosphere

atmospheric

atoll

atom

atomic

atomies