Etymology
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Words related to artery

aorta (n.)

in anatomy, "main trunk of the arterial system," 1590s, from Medieval Latin aorta, from Greek aorte "a strap to hang (something by)," a word applied by Aristotle to the great artery of the heart, literally "what is hung up," probably from aeirein "to lift, heave, raise," which is of uncertain origin, possibly from PIE root *wer- (1) "raise, lift, hold suspended." Used earlier by Hippocrates of the bronchial tubes. It is cognate with the second element in meteor. Related: Aortal; aortic.

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arterial (adj.)
early 15c., "of or pertaining to an artery," from French artérial (Modern French artériel), from Latin arteria "an artery; the windpipe" (see artery). Meaning "resembling an artery system, having a main channel and many branches" is from 1831.
arterio- 
word-forming element meaning "arterial," from Latinized form of Greek arteria "windpipe; artery" (see artery).
arteriole (n.)
"small artery," by 1808, from Modern Latin arteriola, diminutive of arteria "an artery" (see artery).
trachea (n.)
late 14c., from Medieval Latin trachea (13c.), as in trachea arteria, from Late Latin trachia, from Greek trakheia, in trakheia arteria "windpipe," literally "rough artery" (so called from the rings of cartilage that form the trachea), from fem. of trakhys "rough," from PIE *dhre-gh-, suffixed form of root *dher- (1). See artery for connection with windpipe in Greek science. Related: Tracheal.
*wer- (1)

Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to raise, lift, hold suspended." 

It forms all or part of: aerate; aeration; aerial; aero-; aerobics; aerophyte; aerosol; air (n.1) "invisible gases that surround the earth;" airy; aorta; anaerobic; aria; arterial; arterio-; arteriosclerosis; arteriole; artery; aura; malaria; meteor

It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Greek aerein "to lift, raise up;" Lithuanian svarus "heavy," sverti "to lift, weigh;" Old English swar, Old Norse svarr, Old High German swar, German schwer "heavy."